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Secretary of War of the United States of America
""Seal of the United States Department of War.png
"Official seal
""Flag of the United States Secretary of the Army.svg
Flag of the Secretary of War
"United States Department of War
"Style Mr. Secretary
Member of "Cabinet
Reports to The "President
"Seat "Washington, D.C.
Appointer The "President
with "Senate "advice and consent
"Term length No fixed term
Precursor Secretary at War
Formation 1789
First holder "Henry Knox
Final holder "Kenneth C. Royall
Abolished "1947
Succession "Secretary of Defense
"Secretary of the Army
"Secretary of the Air Force

The Secretary of War was a member of the "United States "President's "Cabinet, beginning with "George Washington's administration. A similar position, called either "Secretary at War" or "Secretary of War," had been appointed to serve the "Congress of the Confederation under the "Articles of Confederation between 1781 and 1789. "Benjamin Lincoln and later "Henry Knox held the position. When Washington was inaugurated as the first president under the "Constitution, he appointed Knox to continue serving.

The Secretary of War was the head of the "War Department. At first, he was responsible for all military affairs, including "naval affairs. In 1798, the "Secretary of the Navy was created by statute, and the scope of responsibility for this office was reduced to the affairs of the "United States Army. From 1886 onward, the Secretary of War was third in the "line of succession to the presidency, after the "Vice President of the United States and the "Secretary of State.

In 1947, with the passing of the "National Security Act of 1947, the Secretary of War was replaced by the "Secretary of the Army and the "Secretary of the Air Force, which, along with the Secretary of the Navy, have since 1949 been non-Cabinet subordinates under the "Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of the Army's office is generally considered the direct successor to the Secretary of War's office although the Secretary of Defense took the Secretary of War's position in the Cabinet, and the "line of succession to the presidency.

Contents

List of Secretaries[edit]

Secretary at War (1781–1789)[edit]

The office of Secretary at War was modelled upon Great Britain's "Secretary at War, who was "William Barrington, 2nd Viscount Barrington, at the time of the American Revolution. The office of Secretary at War was meant to replace both the Commander-in-Chief and the "Board of War, and like the President of the Board, the Secretary wore no special insignia. The Inspector General, "Quartermaster General, Commissary General, and "Adjutant General served on the Secretary's staff. However, the Army itself under Secretary Henry Knox only consisted of 700 men.

No. Portrait Name State of residence Took office Left office Congress
1 ""General Benjamin Lincoln-restored.jpg "Benjamin Lincoln "Massachusetts 1781 1783 "Congress of the Confederation
2 ""Henry Knox by Gilbert Stuart 1806.jpeg "Henry Knox "Massachusetts March 8, 1785 September 12, 1789

Secretary of War (1789–1947)[edit]

""
""
"Swearing in of "Dwight F. Davis as Secretary of War in 1925. Former Secretaries "John W. Weeks and "Chief Justice "William Howard Taft are standing beside him.
Parties

  "No party (1)   "Federalist (3)   "Democratic-Republican (8)   "Democratic (14)   "Whig (5)   "Republican (25)

No. Portrait Name State of residence Took office Left office "President(s)
1 ""Henry Knox by Gilbert Stuart 1806.jpeg "Henry Knox "Massachusetts September 12, 1789 December 31, 1794 "George Washington
2 ""Timothy-Pickering.jpg "Timothy Pickering "Pennsylvania[1] January 2, 1795 December 10, 1795
3 ""JMcHenry.jpg "James McHenry "Maryland January 27, 1796 June 1, 1800[2]
"John Adams
4 ""Samuel Dexter.jpg "Samuel Dexter "Massachusetts June 1, 1800 January 31, 1801
5 ""Henry Dearborn by Gilbert Stuart.jpeg "Henry Dearborn "Massachusetts March 5, 1801 March 4, 1809 "Thomas Jefferson
6 ""William Eustis.jpg "William Eustis "Massachusetts March 7, 1809 January 13, 1813 "James Madison
7 ""John Armstrong Jr..jpg "John Armstrong, Jr. "New York January 13, 1813 September 27, 1814
8 ""Jamesmonroe-npgallery.jpg "James Monroe "Virginia September 27, 1814 March 2, 1815
9 ""WilliamHarrisCrawford5.jpg "William H. Crawford "Georgia August 1, 1815 October 22, 1816
10 ""JCCalhoun-1822.jpg "John C. Calhoun "South Carolina October 8, 1817 March 4, 1825 "James Monroe
11 ""BarbourT.jpg "James Barbour "Virginia March 7, 1825 May 23, 1828 "John Quincy Adams
12 ""Peter Buell Porter.jpg "Peter Buell Porter "New York May 23, 1828 March 9, 1829
13 ""John Eaton.jpg "John H. Eaton "Tennessee March 9, 1829 June 18, 1831 "Andrew Jackson
14 ""Lewis Cass 2.jpg "Lewis Cass "Ohio August 1, 1831 October 5, 1836
15 ""Jrpoinsett.jpg "Joel Roberts Poinsett "South Carolina March 7, 1837 March 4, 1841 "Martin Van Buren
16 ""JBell.jpg "John Bell "Tennessee March 5, 1841 September 13, 1841 "William Henry Harrison
"John Tyler
17 ""SpencerJohn.jpg "John Canfield Spencer "New York October 12, 1841 March 4, 1843
18 ""PorterJM.jpg "James Madison Porter "Pennsylvania March 8, 1843 February 14, 1844
19 ""William Wilkins United States Senator - Brady-Handy.jpg "William Wilkins "Pennsylvania February 15, 1844 March 4, 1845
20 ""William L. Marcy.png "William Learned Marcy "New York March 6, 1845 March 4, 1849 "James K. Polk
21 ""GWCrawford2.jpg "George W. Crawford "Georgia March 8, 1849 July 22, 1850 "Zachary Taylor
22 ""Charles Magill Conrad.jpg "Charles Magill Conrad "Louisiana August 15, 1850 March 4, 1853 "Millard Fillmore
23 ""President-Jefferson-Davis.jpg "Jefferson Davis "Mississippi March 7, 1853 March 4, 1857 "Franklin Pierce
24 ""John Buchanan Floyd.jpg "John B. Floyd "Virginia March 6, 1857 December 29, 1860 "James Buchanan
25 ""Joseph Holt.jpg "Joseph Holt "Kentucky January 18, 1861 March 4, 1861
26 ""Smn Cameron-SecofWar.jpg "Simon Cameron "Pennsylvania March 5, 1861 January 14, 1862 "Abraham Lincoln
27 ""Edwin McMasters Stanton Secretary of War.jpg "Edwin M. Stanton "Pennsylvania January 20, 1862 May 28, 1868
"Andrew Johnson
28 ""John Schofield.jpg "John McAllister Schofield "Illinois June 1, 1868 March 13, 1869
29 ""John Aaron Rawlins - Brady-Handy.jpg "John Aaron Rawlins "Illinois March 13, 1869 September 6, 1869 "Ulysses S. Grant
30 ""WWBelknap.jpg "William W. Belknap "Iowa October 25, 1869 March 2, 1876
31 ""Alphonso Taft seated.jpg "Alphonso Taft "Ohio March 8, 1876 May 22, 1876
32 ""JDonaldC2.jpg "J. Donald Cameron "Pennsylvania May 22, 1876 March 4, 1877
33 ""GWMcCrary.jpg "George W. McCrary "Iowa March 12, 1877 December 10, 1879 "Rutherford B. Hayes
34 ""Alexander Ramsey - Brady-Handy.jpg "Alexander Ramsey "Minnesota December 10, 1879 March 4, 1881
35 ""Robert Todd Lincoln, Brady-Handy bw photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg "Robert Todd Lincoln "Illinois March 5, 1881 March 4, 1885 "James A. Garfield
"Chester A. Arthur
36 ""William Endicott, bw photo portrait, 1886.jpg "William Crowninshield Endicott "Massachusetts March 5, 1885 March 4, 1889 "Grover Cleveland
37 ""Redfield Proctor, bw photo portrait, 1904.jpg "Redfield Proctor "Vermont March 5, 1889 November 5, 1891 "Benjamin Harrison
38 ""SBElkins.jpg "Stephen Benton Elkins "West Virginia December 17, 1891 March 4, 1893
39 ""Daniel Lamont, bw photo portrait, 1904.jpg "Daniel S. Lamont "New York March 5, 1893 March 4, 1897 "Grover Cleveland
40 ""Russell Alexander Alger by by The Detroit Publishing Co..jpg "Russell A. Alger "Michigan March 5, 1897 August 1, 1899 "William McKinley
41 ""Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902.jpg "Elihu Root "New York August 1, 1899 January 31, 1904
"Theodore Roosevelt
42 ""William Howard Taft.jpg "William Howard Taft "Ohio February 1, 1904 June 30, 1908
43 ""Luke Edward Wright.jpg "Luke Edward Wright "Tennessee July 1, 1908 March 4, 1909
44 ""Jacob Dickinson, bw photo portrait standing, 1909.jpg "Jacob M. Dickinson "Tennessee March 12, 1909 May 21, 1911 "William Howard Taft
45 ""HLStimson.jpg "Henry L. Stimson "New York May 22, 1911 March 4, 1913
46 ""Lindley Garrison, BW photo portrait, 1913.jpg "Lindley Miller Garrison "New Jersey March 5, 1913 February 10, 1916 "Woodrow Wilson
47 ""Newton Baker, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg "Newton D. Baker "Ohio March 9, 1916 March 4, 1921
48 ""John Wingate Weeks, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg "John W. Weeks "Massachusetts March 5, 1921 October 13, 1925 "Warren G. Harding
"Calvin Coolidge
49 ""Dwight Davis, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg "Dwight F. Davis "Missouri October 14, 1925 March 4, 1929
50 ""James William Good, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1919.jpg "James William Good "Illinois March 6, 1929 November 18, 1929 "Herbert Hoover
51 ""PJayHurl.jpg "Patrick J. Hurley "Oklahoma December 9, 1929 March 4, 1933
52 ""George Dern, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg "George Dern "Utah March 4, 1933 August 27, 1936 "Franklin D. Roosevelt
53 ""Harry Hines Woodring, 53rd United States Secretary of War.jpg "Harry Hines Woodring "Kansas September 25, 1936 June 20, 1940
54 ""Henry Stimson, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1929.jpg "Henry L. Stimson "New York July 10, 1940 September 21, 1945
"Harry S. Truman
55 ""Robert P. Patterson, 55th United States Secretary of War.jpg "Robert P. Patterson "New York September 27, 1945 July 18, 1947
56 ""KCR portrait.jpg "Kenneth C. Royall "North Carolina July 19, 1947 September 18, 1947

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?hlaw:7:./temp/~ammem_WqlO::
  2. ^ "Papers of the War Department". Wardepartmentpapers.org. Retrieved 2012-05-15. 

Further reading[edit]

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