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Main article: "1940 Democratic National Convention
Democratic candidates
""John Nance Garner.jpg "John Nance Garner
Incumbent "U.S. Vice President
""FDRoosevelt1938.png "Franklin D. Roosevelt
Incumbent "U.S. President
""Jim Farley.gif "James Farley
Incumbent "U.S. Postmaster General
Convention vote
President Vice President
"Franklin D. Roosevelt 946 "Henry A. Wallace 626
"James Farley 72 "William B. Bankhead 329
"John Nance Garner 61 "Paul V. McNutt 68
"Millard Tydings 9 "Alva B. Adams 11
"Cordell Hull 5 "James Farley 7
"Jesse H. Jones 5
"Joseph C. O'Mahoney 3
"Alben W. Barkley 2
"Prentiss M. Brown 1
"Louis A. Johnson 1
"Scott W. Lucas 1
Bascomb Timmons 1
"David I. Walsh 0.5

Throughout the winter, spring, and summer of 1940, there was much speculation as to whether Roosevelt would break with longstanding tradition and run for an unprecedented third term. The two-term tradition, although not yet enshrined in the Constitution, had been established by George Washington when he refused to run for a third term in 1796. Roosevelt refused to give a definitive statement as to his willingness to be a candidate again, and he even indicated to some ambitious Democrats, such as "James Farley, that he would not run for a third term and that they could seek the Democratic nomination. However, as "Nazi Germany swept through Western Europe and menaced Britain in the summer of 1940, Roosevelt decided that only he had the necessary experience and skills to see the nation safely through the Nazi threat. He was aided by the party's political bosses, who feared that no Democrat except Roosevelt could defeat the popular Willkie.[3]

At the July 1940 Democratic Convention in Chicago, Roosevelt easily swept aside challenges from Farley and "John Nance Garner, his Vice-President. Garner was a Texas conservative who had turned against Roosevelt in his second term because of his liberal economic and social policies. As a result, Roosevelt decided to pick a new running mate, "Henry A. Wallace from Iowa, his Secretary of Agriculture and an outspoken liberal. That choice was strenuously opposed by many of the party's conservatives, who felt Wallace was too radical and "eccentric" in his private life to be an effective running mate (he practiced "New Age spiritual beliefs, and often consulted with the controversial Russian spiritual guru "Nicholas Roerich). But Roosevelt insisted that without Wallace on the ticket he would decline re-nomination, and when "First Lady "Eleanor Roosevelt came to Chicago to vouch for Wallace, he won the vice-presidential nomination with 626 votes to 329 for House Speaker "William B. Bankhead of Alabama.[4]

Republican Party[edit]

Republican Party (United States) presidential primaries, 1940 and "1940 Republican National Convention
Republican candidates
""ThomasDewey.png "Thomas E. Dewey
Incumbent "Manhattan District Attorney
from "New York
""HerbertHoover.jpg "Herbert Hoover
Former "U.S. President
from "California
""Robert a taft.jpg "Robert A. Taft
Incumbent "U.S. Senator
from "Ohio
""Arthur H. Vandenberg.jpg "Arthur H. Vandenberg
Incumbent "U.S. Senator
from "Michigan
""WendellWillkie.png "Wendell Willkie
Businessman
from "New York
Presidential Balloting, Republican Convention 1940[5]
Ballot → 1 2 3 4 5 6
before
shifts
after
shifts
"Wendell Willkie 105 171 259 306 429 655 √ 998
"Robert A. Taft 189 203 212 254 377 318
"Thomas E. Dewey 360 338 315 250 57 11
"Arthur H. Vandenberg 76 73 72 61 42
"Arthur James 74 66 59 56 59
"Joseph W. Martin 44 26
"Hanford MacNider 34 34 28 26 4
"Frank Gannett 33 30 11 4 1 1
"Herbert Hoover 17 21 32 31 20 10
"Styles Bridges 28 9 1 1
Scattering / Blank 40 29 11 11 11 5 2
Vice Presidential Balloting, Republican Convention 1940
"Charles L. McNary √ 848
"Dewey Jackson Short 108
"Styles Bridges 2

In the months leading up to the opening of the 1940 "Republican National Convention in "Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Republican Party was deeply divided between the party's isolationists, who wanted to stay out of the war at all costs, and the party's interventionists, who felt that Great Britain needed to be given all aid short of war to prevent the Germans from conquering all of Europe. The three leading candidates for the Republican nomination were all isolationists to varying degrees. The three frontrunners were Senator "Robert A. Taft from Ohio, Senator "Arthur H. Vandenberg from Michigan, and "District Attorney "Thomas E. Dewey from New York.[6]

Taft was the leader of the conservative, isolationist wing of the Republican Party, and his main strength was in his native "Midwest and parts of the South. Dewey, the District Attorney for "Manhattan, had risen to national fame as the "Gangbuster" prosecutor who had sent numerous infamous "Mafia figures to prison, most notably "Lucky Luciano, the organized-crime boss of "New York City. Dewey had won most of the presidential primaries in the spring of 1940, and he came into the Republican Convention in June with the largest number of delegate votes, although he was still well below the number needed to win. Vandenberg, the senior Republican in the Senate, was the "favorite son" candidate of the Michigan delegation and was considered a possible compromise candidate if Taft or Dewey faltered. Former President "Herbert Hoover was also spoken of as a compromise candidate.

However, each of these candidates had weaknesses that could be exploited. Taft's outspoken isolationism and opposition to any American involvement in the European war convinced many Republican leaders that he could not win a general election, particularly as "France fell to the Nazis in May 1940 and Germany threatened Britain. Dewey's relative youth—he was only 38 in 1940—and lack of any foreign-policy experience caused his candidacy to weaken as the Nazi military emerged as a fearsome threat. In 1940, Vandenberg was also an isolationist (he would change his foreign-policy stance during World War II) and his lackadaisical, lethargic campaign never caught the voters' attention. Hoover still bore the stigma of having presided over the stock market crash of 1929 and the subsequent "Great Depression. This left an opening for a "dark horse candidate to emerge.[7]

""
""
Wendell Willkie for President campaign button.

A "Wall Street-based industrialist named Wendell Willkie, who had never before run for public office, emerged as the unlikely nominee. Willkie, a native of Indiana and a former Democrat who had supported Franklin Roosevelt in the "1932 presidential election, was considered an improbable choice. Willkie had first come to public attention as an articulate critic of Roosevelt's attempt to break up electrical power monopolies.

Willkie was the CEO of the Commonwealth & Southern Corporation, which provided electrical power to customers in eleven states. In 1933, President Roosevelt had created the "Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), which promised to provide flood control and cheap electricity to the impoverished people of the Tennessee River Valley. However, the government-run TVA would compete with Willkie's Commonwealth & Southern, and this led Willkie to criticize and oppose the TVA's attempt to compete with private power companies. Willkie argued that the government had unfair advantages over private corporations, and should thus avoid competing directly against them.[8]

However, Willkie did not dismiss all of Roosevelt's social welfare programs, indeed supporting those he believed could not be managed any better by the free enterprise system. Furthermore, unlike the leading Republican candidates, Willkie was a forceful and outspoken advocate of aid to the Allies, especially Britain. His support of giving all aid to the British "short of declaring war" won him the support of many Republicans on the East Coast, who disagreed with their party's isolationist leaders in Congress.

Willkie's persuasive arguments impressed these Republicans, who believed that he would be an attractive presidential candidate. Many of the leadingpress barons of the era, such as Ogden Reid of the "New York Herald Tribune, Roy Howard of the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain and John and Gardner Cowles, publishers of the "Minneapolis Star and the "Minneapolis Tribune, as well as "The Des Moines Register and "Look magazine, supported Willkie in their newspapers and magazines. Even so, Willkie remained a long-shot candidate; the May 8 "Gallup Poll showed Dewey at 67% support among Republicans, followed by Vandenberg and Taft, with Willkie at only 3%.

The German Army's rapid blitz into France in May 1940 shook American public opinion, even as Taft was telling a Kansas audience that America needed to concentrate on domestic issues to prevent Roosevelt from using the war crisis to extend socialism at home. Both Dewey and Vandenberg also continued to oppose any aid to Britain that might lead to war with Germany. Nevertheless, sympathy for the embattled British was mounting daily, and this aided Willkie's candidacy. By mid-June, little over one week before the Republican Convention opened, the Gallup poll reported that Willkie had moved into second place with 17%, and that Dewey was slipping. Fueled by his favorable media attention, Willkie's pro-British statements won over many of the delegates. As the delegates were arriving in Philadelphia, Gallup reported that Willkie had surged to 29%, Dewey had slipped five more points to 47%, and Taft, Vandenberg and Hoover trailed at 8%, 8%, and 6% respectively.

Hundreds of thousands, perhaps as many as one million, telegrams urging support for Willkie poured in, many from "Willkie Clubs" that had sprung up across the country. Millions more signed petitions circulating everywhere. At the "1940 Republican National Convention itself, keynote speaker "Harold Stassen, the Governor of Minnesota, announced his support for Willkie and became his official floor manager. Hundreds of vocal Willkie supporters packed the upper galleries of the convention hall. Willkie's amateur status and fresh face appealed to delegates as well as voters. Most of the delegations were selected not by primaries, but by party leaders in each state, and they had a keen sense of the fast-changing pulse of public opinion. Gallup found the same thing in polling data not reported until after the convention: Willkie had moved ahead among Republican voters by 44% to only 29% for the collapsing Dewey. As the pro-Willkie galleries chanted "We Want Willkie!" the delegates on the convention floor began their vote. Dewey led on the first ballot, but steadily lost strength thereafter. Both Taft and Willkie gained in strength on each ballot, and by the fourth ballot it was obvious that either Willkie or Taft would be the nominee. The key moments came when the delegations of large states such as Michigan, Pennsylvania, and New York left Dewey and Vandenberg and switched to Willkie, giving him the victory on the sixth ballot.[9]

Willkie's nomination was one of the most dramatic moments in any political convention.[10] Having given little thought to whom he would select as his vice-presidential nominee, Willkie left the decision to convention chairman and Massachusetts Representative "Joseph Martin, the House Minority Leader, who suggested Senate Minority Leader "Charles L. McNary from Oregon. Despite the fact that McNary had spearheaded a "Stop Willkie" campaign late in the balloting, the convention picked him to be Willkie's running mate.[11]

General election[edit]

Polling[edit]

The Gallup Poll accurately predicted the election outcome.[12] However, the American Institute of Public Opinion, responsible for the Gallup Poll, avoided predicting the outcome, citing a four percent margin of error.[13] The Gallup Poll also found that, if there was "no war in Europe, voters preferred Willkie over Roosevelt.[12]

The fall campaign[edit]

""
""
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of blue are for Roosevelt (Democratic) and shades of red are for Willkie (Republican).

Willkie crusaded against Roosevelt's attempt to break the two-term presidential tradition, arguing that "if one man is indispensable, then none of us is free." Even some Democrats who had supported Roosevelt in the past disapproved of his attempt to win a third term, and Willkie hoped to win their votes. Willkie also criticized what he claimed was the incompetence and waste in Roosevelt's "New Deal welfare programs. He stated that as president he would keep most of Roosevelt's government programs, but would make them more efficient.[14]

However, many Americans still blamed business leaders for the Great Depression, and the fact that Willkie symbolized "Big Business" hurt him with many working-class voters. Willkie was a fearless campaigner; he often visited industrial areas where Republicans were still blamed for causing the Great Depression and where Roosevelt was highly popular. In these areas, Willkie frequently had rotten fruit and vegetables thrown at him and was heckled by crowds; still, he was unfazed.[15]

Willkie also accused Roosevelt of leaving the nation unprepared for war, but Roosevelt's military buildup and transformation of the nation into the "arsenal of democracy" removed the "unpreparedness" charge as a major issue. Willkie then reversed his approach and charged Roosevelt with secretly planning to take the nation into World War II. This accusation did cut into Roosevelt's support. In response, Roosevelt, in a pledge that he would later regret, promised that he would "not send American boys into any foreign wars." The United Kingdom actively intervened throughout the election against isolationism.[16]

Results[edit]

Roosevelt "led in all pre-election opinion polls by various margins. On Election Day—November 5, 1940, he received 27.3 million votes to Willkie's 22.3 million, and in the "Electoral College, he defeated Willkie by a margin of 449 to 82. Willkie did get over six million more votes than the Republican nominee in 1936, "Alf Landon, and he ran strong in "rural areas in the American "Midwest, taking over 57% of the farm vote. Roosevelt, meanwhile, carried every American city with a population of more than 400,000 except "Cincinnati, Ohio. Of the 106 cities with more than 100,000 population, he won 61% of the votes cast; in the South as a whole, he won 73% of the total vote. In the remainder of the country (the rural and small-town North), Willkie had a majority of 53%. In the cities, there was a class differential, with the white-collar and middle-class voters supporting Republican candidate, and working class, blue-collar voters going for FDR. In the North, Roosevelt won 87% of the Jewish vote, 73% of the Catholics, and 61% of the nonmembers, while all the major Protestant denominations showed majorities for Willkie.[17]

This has been the last time in which the Democratic Party won the presidency more than two consecutive times.

Of the 3,094 counties/independent cities, Roosevelt won in 1,947 (62.93%) while Willkie carried 1,147 (37.07%).

As a result of Willkie's gains, Roosevelt became the second of only three presidents in United States history to win re-election with a lower percentage of both the electoral vote and the popular vote than in the prior election, preceded by "James Madison in "1812 and followed by "Barack Obama in "2012. "Andrew Jackson in "1832 and "Grover Cleveland in "1892 received more electoral votes but fewer popular votes, while "Woodrow Wilson in "1916 received more popular votes but fewer electoral votes.

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
"Franklin D. Roosevelt (Incumbent) "Democratic "New York 27,313,945 54.74% 449 "Henry A. Wallace "Iowa 449
"Wendell Willkie "Republican "New York 22,347,744 44.78% 82 "Charles L. McNary "Oregon 82
"Norman Thomas "Socialist "New York 116,599 0.23% 0 "Maynard C. Krueger "Illinois 0
"Roger Babson "Prohibition "Massachusetts 57,903 0.12% 0 Edgar Moorman "Illinois 0
"Earl Browder "Communist "Kansas 48,557 0.10% 0 "James Ford "New York 0
"John W. Aiken "Socialist Labor "Connecticut 14,883 0.03% 0 Aaron M. Orange "New York 0
Other 2,482 0.00% Other
Total 49,902,113 100% 531 531
Needed to win 266 266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. "1940 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved July 31, 2005. Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". "National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2005. 

Popular vote
Roosevelt
  
54.74%
Willkie
  
44.78%
Thomas
  
0.23%
Others
  
0.25%
Electoral vote
Roosevelt
  
84.56%
Willkie
  
15.44%

Geography of Results[edit]

""1940 Electoral Map.png
""

Cartographic Gallery[edit]

Results by state[edit]

[18]

States won by "Roosevelt/"Wallace
States won by "Willkie/"McNary
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic
Wendell Willkie
Republican
Norman Thomas
Socialist
Other Margin State Total
State electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % #
Alabama 11 250,726 85.22 11 42,184 14.34 - 100 0.03 - 1,209 0.41 - 208,542 70.88 294,219 AL
Arizona 3 95,267 63.49 3 54,030 36.01 - - - - 742 0.49 - 41,237 27.48 150,039 AZ
Arkansas 9 158,622 79.02 9 42,121 20.98 - - - - - - - 116,501 58.03 200,743 AR
"California 22 1,877,618 57.44 22 1,351,419 41.34 - 16,506 0.50 - 23,248 0.71 - 526,199 16.10 3,268,791 CA
Colorado 6 265,554 48.37 - 279,576 50.92 6 1,899 0.35 - 1,975 0.36 - -14,022 -2.55 549,004 CO
Connecticut 8 417,621 53.44 8 361,819 46.30 - - - - 2,062 0.26 - 55,802 7.14 781,502 CT
Delaware 3 74,599 54.70 3 61,440 45.05 - 115 0.08 - 220 0.16 - 13,159 9.65 136,374 DE
"Florida 7 359,334 74.01 7 126,158 25.99 - - - - - - - 233,176 48.03 485,492 FL
Georgia 12 265,194 84.85 12 46,360 14.83 - - - - 997 0.32 - 218,834 70.02 312,551 GA
Idaho 4 127,842 54.36 4 106,553 45.31 - 497 0.21 - 276 0.12 - 21,289 9.05 235,168 ID
Illinois 29 2,149,934 50.97 29 2,047,240 48.54 - 10,914 0.26 - 9,847 0.23 - 102,694 2.43 4,217,935 IL
Indiana 14 874,063 49.03 - 899,466 50.45 14 2,075 0.12 - 7,143 0.40 - -25,403 -1.42 1,782,747 IN
Iowa 11 578,800 47.62 - 632,370 52.03 11 - - - 4,260 0.35 - -53,570 -4.41 1,215,430 IA
Kansas 9 364,725 42.40 - 489,169 56.86 9 2,347 0.27 - 4,056 0.47 - -124,444 -14.47 860,297 KS
Kentucky 11 557,222 57.44 11 410,384 42.30 - 1,014 0.10 - 1,443 0.15 - 146,838 15.14 970,063 KY
Louisiana 10 319,751 85.88 10 52,446 14.09 - - - - 108 0.03 - 267,305 71.80 372,305 LA
Maine 5 156,478 48.77 - 163,951 51.10 5 - - - 411 0.13 - -7,473 -2.33 320,840 ME
Maryland 8 384,546 58.25 8 269,534 40.83 - 4,093 0.62 - 1,944 0.29 - 115,012 17.42 660,117 MD
"Massachusetts 17 1,076,522 53.11 17 939,700 46.36 - 4,091 0.20 - 6,680 0.33 - 136,822 6.75 2,026,993 MA
Michigan 19 1,032,991 49.52 - 1,039,917 49.85 19 7,593 0.36 - 5,428 0.26 - -6,926 -0.33 2,085,929 MI
"Minnesota 11 644,196 51.49 11 596,274 47.66 - 5,454 0.44 - 5,264 0.42 - 47,922 3.83 1,251,188 MN
Mississippi 9 168,267 95.70 9 7,364 4.19 - 193 0.11 - - - - 160,903 91.51 175,824 MS
Missouri 15 958,476 52.27 15 871,009 47.50 - 2,226 0.12 - 2,018 0.11 - 87,467 4.77 1,833,729 MO
"Montana 4 145,698 58.78 4 99,579 40.17 - 1,443 0.58 - 1,153 0.47 - 46,119 18.61 247,873 MT
Nebraska 7 263,677 42.81 - 352,201 57.19 7 - - - - - - -88,524 -14.37 615,878 NE
Nevada 3 31,945 60.08 3 21,229 39.92 - - - - - - - 10,716 20.15 53,174 NV
"New Hampshire 4 125,292 53.22 4 110,127 46.78 - - - - - - - 15,165 6.44 235,419 NH
"New Jersey 16 1,016,404 51.48 16 944,876 47.86 - 2,823 0.14 - 10,111 0.51 - 71,528 3.62 1,974,214 NJ
"New Mexico 3 103,699 56.59 3 79,315 43.28 - 144 0.08 - 100 0.05 - 24,384 13.31 183,258 NM
"New York 47 3,251,918 51.60 47 3,027,478 48.04 - 18,950 0.30 - 3,250 0.05 - 224,440 3.56 6,301,596 NY
North Carolina 13 609,015 74.03 13 213,633 25.97 - - - - - - - 395,382 48.06 822,648 NC
North Dakota 4 124,036 44.18 - 154,590 55.06 4 1,279 0.46 - 870 0.31 - -30,554 -10.88 280,775 ND
Ohio 26 1,733,139 52.20 26 1,586,773 47.80 - - - - - - - 146,366 4.41 3,319,912 OH
Oklahoma 11 474,313 57.41 11 348,872 42.23 - - - - 3,027 0.37 - 125,441 15.18 826,212 OK
Oregon 5 258,415 53.70 5 219,555 45.62 - 398 0.08 - 2,872 0.60 - 38,860 8.07 481,240 OR
"Pennsylvania 36 2,171,035 53.23 36 1,889,848 46.33 - 10,967 0.27 - 6,864 0.17 - 281,187 6.89 4,078,714 PA
Rhode Island 4 182,182 56.73 4 138,653 43.17 - - - - 313 0.10 - 43,529 13.55 321,148 RI
South Carolina 8 95,470 95.63 8 4,360 4.37 - 2 0.00 - - - - 91,110 91.26 99,832 SC
South Dakota 4 131,362 42.59 - 177,065 57.41 4 - - - - - - -45,703 -14.82 308,427 SD
Tennessee 11 351,601 67.25 11 169,153 32.35 - 463 0.09 - 1,606 0.31 - 182,448 34.90 522,823 TN
Texas 23 909,974 80.92 23 212,692 18.91 - 728 0.06 - 1,137 0.10 - 697,282 62.01 1,124,531 TX
Utah 4 154,277 62.25 4 93,151 37.59 - 200 0.08 - 191 0.08 - 61,126 24.67 247,819 UT
"Vermont 3 64,269 44.92 - 78,371 54.78 3 - - - 422 0.30 - -14,102 -9.86 143,062 VT
"Virginia 11 235,961 68.08 11 109,363 31.55 - 282 0.08 - 1,001 0.29 - 126,598 36.52 346,607 VA
Washington 8 462,145 58.22 8 322,123 40.58 - 4,586 0.58 - 4,979 0.63 - 140,022 17.64 793,833 WA
West Virginia 8 495,662 57.10 8 372,414 42.90 - - - - - - - 123,248 14.20 868,076 WV
"Wisconsin 12 704,821 50.15 12 679,206 48.32 - 15,071 1.07 - 6,424 0.46 - 25,615 1.82 1,405,522 WI
Wyoming 3 59,287 52.82 3 52,633 46.89 - 148 0.13 - 172 0.15 - 6,654 5.93 112,240 WY
TOTALS: 531 27,313,945 54.74 449 22,347,744 44.78 82 116,599 0.23 - 123,825 0.25 - 4,966,201 9.95 49,902,113 US

Close states[edit]

Margin of victory less than 1% (19 electoral votes):

  1. Michigan, 0.33%

Margin of victory less than 5% (192 electoral votes):

  1. Indiana, 1.42%
  2. Wisconsin, 1.82%
  3. Maine, 2.33%
  4. Illinois, 2.43%
  5. Colorado, 2.55%
  6. New York, 3.56%
  7. New Jersey, 3.62%
  8. Minnesota, 3.83%
  9. Iowa, 4.41%
  10. Ohio, 4.41%
  11. Missouri, 4.77%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (83 electoral votes):

  1. Wyoming, 5.93%
  2. New Hampshire, 6.44%
  3. Massachusetts, 6.75%
  4. Pennsylvania, 6.89% (tipping point state)
  5. Connecticut, 7.14%
  6. Oregon, 8.07%
  7. Idaho, 9.05%
  8. Delaware, 9.65%
  9. Vermont, 9.86%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". The American Presidency Project. "UC Santa Barbara. 
  2. ^ a b "U. S. Electoral College". Archives.gov. Retrieved 2016-08-18. 
  3. ^ James MacGregor Burns Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox (1956) pp 408-30.
  4. ^ Richard Moe, Roosevelt's Second Act: The Election of 1940 and the Politics of War (2013).
  5. ^ Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris, Convention Decisions and Voting Records (1973), pp. 254–256.
  6. ^ Michael D. Bowen, The Roots of Modern Conservatism: Dewey, Taft, and the Battle for the Soul of the Republican Party (2011).
  7. ^ Susan Dunn, 1940: FDR, Willkie, Lindbergh, Hitler-the Election Amid the Storm (Yale UP, 2013).
  8. ^ Steve Neal, Dark Horse: A Biography of Wendell Willkie (1989)
  9. ^ Henry Z. Scheele, "The Nomination of Wendell Willkie." Communication Quarterly 16.4 (1968): 45-50.
  10. ^ Charles Peters, Five Days in Philadelphia: 1940, Wendell Willkie, FDR and the Political Convention That Won World War II (2006) pp 1-5.
  11. ^ Steve Neal, McNary of Oregon: A Political Biography (1985).
  12. ^ a b Gallup, George (January 1941). "Was I Right About Roosevelt?". Coronet. Old Magazine Articles. Retrieved 2016-08-18. 
  13. ^ "Katz, Daniel (March 1941). "The Public Opinion Polls and the 1940 Election". The Public Opinion Quarterly. Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 52–78
  14. ^ John W. Jeffries, A Third Term for FDR: The Election of 1940 (2017)
  15. ^ * Evjen, Henry O. "The Willkie Campaign; An Unfortunate Chapter in Republican Leadership", Journal of Politics (1952) 14#2 pp. 241–56 in JSTOR
  16. ^ Usdin, Steve (16 January 2017). "When a Foreign Government Interfered in a U.S. Election — to Reelect FDR". "Politico. Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  17. ^ Richard Jensen, "The Cities Reelect Roosevelt" p 189-90
  18. ^ "1940 Presidential General Election Data - National". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 

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