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Main article: "International Article Number (EAN)

The "EAN-13 was developed as a "superset of UPC-A, adding an extra digit to the beginning of every UPC-A number. This expanded the number of unique values theoretically possible by ten times to 1 trillion. EAN-13 barcodes also indicate the country in which the company that sells the product is based (which may or may not be the same as the country in which the good is manufactured). The three leading digits of the code determine this, according to the "GS1 country codes. Every UPC-A code can be easily converted to the equivalent EAN-13 code by prepending 0 digit to the UPC-A code. This does not change the "check digit. All "point-of-sale systems can now understand both equally.

"EAN-8 is an 8-digit variation of the EAN barcode.

UPC usage notes:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "GS1 US > RESOURCES > Standards > EAN/UPC visuals". 
  2. ^ US patent 2612994, Woodland, Norman J. & "Bernard Silver, "Classifying Apparatus and Method", issued October 7, 1952 
  3. ^ a b "UPC - The Transformation of Retail". Retrieved April 28, 2016. 
  4. ^ "A Brief History of the Bar Code". Esquire. 153 (3): 42. March 2010. 
  5. ^ "Our history - Careers - McKinsey & Company". 
  6. ^ Nelson, Benjamin (1997). Punched cards to bar codes : a 200 year journey ; with description and examples of over 270 different machine-readable codes. Peterborough, N.H.: Helmers. "ISBN "978-0911261127. 
  7. ^ Alfred, Randy, "June 26, 1974: By Gum! There's a New Way to Buy Gum" Archived August 24, 2010, at the "Wayback Machine. Wired magazine 06.26.08
  8. ^ Scanning Species, Harvard Magazine, September - October 2005
  9. ^ "Alumni Hall Of Fame Members". University of Maryland Alumni Association. The University of Maryland. 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-06-23. Retrieved 2009-06-10. After graduating from Maryland in 1951, George Laurer joined IBM as a junior engineer and worked up the ranks to senior engineer. In 1969, he returned to the technical side of engineering and was later assigned the monumental task of designing a code and symbol for product identification for the Uniform Grocery Product Code Council. His solution—the Universal Product Code—radically changed the retail world. Since then, he has enhanced the code by adding a 13th digit. 
  10. ^ rainman_63 (6 April 2005). "Drawing UPC-A Barcodes with C#". 
  11. ^ "UPC Symbol Specification Manual". 
  12. ^ "Barcodes for Pharmaceuticals and Surgical Products". 
  13. ^ "NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)". HealthData. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. 
  14. ^ a b
  15. ^ "UPC-E Symbology". Retrieved 21 January 2013. 

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