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In most parts of Europe, such as "Germany, the "Netherlands, "France, "Italy, and "Scandinavia, there are state-funded secondary schools specializing in university-preparatory education. These go by many names depending on the country but may be called "gymnasia, "athenaea, a "lycee or a liceo, depending on the nation.
In "France, certain private or public secondary schools offer special post-secondary classes called "classes préparatoires, equivalent in level to the first years of "university, for students who wish to prepare for the competitive exams for the entrance in the "Grandes écoles. Unlike American prep schools then, they begin after high-school graduation. The most famous French classes préparatoires are exceptionally intensive and selective, taking only the very best students graduating from high schools but generally not charging fees. Nevertheless, there exist many less prestigious classes préparatoires. As a result, 90% of the students in the scientific classes préparatoires eventually become engineers or scientists.
A Gymnasium (plural: Gymnasien) is a particular type of school in "Germany and other countries in "Europe, with the goal to prepare its pupils to enter a university.
The "γυμνάσιον (gymnasion) of "Ancient Greece was a place for physical and eventually also intellectual "education of young men. The later meaning of intellectual education persisted in "German and other languages, whereas in "English, the older meaning of physical education was retained. The German Gymnasien are selective and competitive schools. They enroll students after completing 4th or 6th grade (depending on the "Bundesland", i.e., state) and prepare them for college. The vast majority of Gymnasien is public and does not charge tuition fees. Article 7, Paragraph 4 of the German constitution, forbids segregation of students according to the means of their parents (the so-called Sondierungsverbot). Therefore, most private Gymnasien have rather low tuition fees and/or offer scholarships.
Recently, there has been some debate about the Gymnasium and some people put forward the opinion that the Gymnasien are not enrolling enough students from non-east-Asian immigrant families and from working class and lower-class families. As a result of that discussion, the "Senate of Berlin ruled that the Gymnasien in the jurisdiction of Berlin should only be able to pick 70% to 65% of their students, the other places at the Gymnasien are to be allocated by lottery. Every child will be able to enter the lottery, no matter how he or she performed in primary school. It is hoped that this policy will increase the number of lower and working class students attending a Gymnasium.
However, according to a 2012 Forsa study for the Berlin Newspaper, the majority of the people in Berlin think that the performance in primary school should dictate whether or not someone can be enrolled at a Gymnasium. A total of zero percent was in favour of the lottery.
Germany's oldest Gymnasien include "Gymnasium Paulinum (founded around 797), Gymnasium Theodorianum (founded in 799) and "Gymnasium Carolinum (founded in 804).
In Italy, there are several kinds of high schools, both public and private, whose curriculum has as a primary aim the preparation for university. These are called "Liceo", plural "Licei". The name comes from "Lyceum", the "Latin rendering of the "Ancient Greek Λύκειον ("Lykeion"), the name of a "gymnasium in "Classical Athens dedicated to "Apollo Lyceus. "This original Lyceum is remembered as the location of the "peripatetic school of "Aristotle.
Until 1969, the "Liceo Classico was the only secondary education track that allowed a student access to any kind of Italian university, while other secondary education tracks allowed only a restricted access path; nowadays it carries the reputation of being a highly formative school, one of the few European secondary school types where the study of ancient languages and their literature are compulsory.
There are four main types of Liceo: "Liceo Classico (focusing on classical subjects, such as "Italian, "Latin and Ancient Greek studies, and traditionally divided in two years of "Ginnasio" plus three years of "Liceo"), "Liceo Scientifico (lacking Greek to devote approximately equal time to the remaining classical subjects and scientific subjects), Liceo Artistico (focusing on artistic subjects as "Art History and "Drawing and Liceo Linguistico (focusing on foreign languages such as "French, "German, "Spanish, "Chinese: two of these are added to the study of the mandatory language, "English).
Other kind of high schools, usually referred to as "technical institutes", also offer the possibility to attain university after graduation, although they also form students to have some kind of professional prospective after graduation.
In the "Netherlands, the official terminology is "voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs (or vwo) meaning "preparatory academic education". The vwo is divided into the "atheneum and "gymnasium. These are identical in duration (six years) and level of education, except that the gymnasium includes "Latin and "Ancient Greek as compulsory subjects in the first few years, and a pupil must include at least one of these classical languages in his final exams. In the Netherlands, education is usually public.
In the "Slovak Republic, "gymnázium is one of the school types providing secondary education that leads to the "maturita exam, a prerequisite for "higher education. Gymnáziums are the main school type to prepare students for tertiary education ("vysoká škola).
The "International Baccalaureate's Diploma Programme in "Spain was created in 1968. It is a demanding pre-university course of study that leads to examinations. It is designed for highly motivated secondary school students aged 16 to 19. It recognizes the IB diploma as academically equivalent to "Titulo de bachillerato español". The programme has earned a reputation for rigorous assessment, giving IB diploma holders access to the world’s leading universities. The Diploma Programme is rigorous and is world-renowned. Each student’s performance is measured against well-defined levels of achievement and high standards of academics. These are consistent from one examination session to the next and are applied equally to all schools. The International Baccalaureate has shown that students are well prepared for university work. They are accepted by universities in more than 110 countries.
One school is the Academy School in the "Balearic Islands, which is a member of the National Association of British Schools in "Spain. It is inspected regularly both by British Inspectors and Inspectors from the "Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Among other prestigious schools are the "Hastings School in "Madrid, the "Caxton College in "Valencia, and the Bellver International College in "Mallorca. These are internationally recognized by the IB Diploma Programme and academically ranked accordingly.
The International Preparatory Schools are ranked and recognised by the "Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (MEC) and all teach a minimum level of Spanish language, science, literature, geography, biology and history. The curriculum also varies from one international school to another.
In addition to disciplinary and interdisciplinary study, the Diploma Programme features three core elements that broaden students’ educational experience and challenge them to apply their knowledge and skills. Students can study and take examinations, in English, French or Spanish.
- Notes: In the UK, ""prep school" refers to a tuition-based school for children ages 8 to 13. In England and Wales, ""public school" refers to exclusive and private, tuition-based secondary school for children ages 13 to 18.
"Comprehensive schools and "sixth form colleges, which are both funded by the state, prepare students for university, as do fee-paying "public schools (so name as they are open to the public, as opposed to being restricted to a religious denomination). Historically "grammar schools would prepare some or most of their pupils for university entrance until funding for these was withdrawn. The only institutions specialising in university entrance are "crammers for (usually) privately educated pupils who have failed to gain entrance to their university of choice directly from school.
In Turkey, university-preparatory schools are private schools and called basic lyceum("Turkish: temel lise).[note 1] They are formed in 2016 as a result of "anti-cramming movement initiated by Turkish government. They are subsidised by Turkish government for conversion and to boost student enrolment.
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In South Korea, many high schools designated as foreign language high or science high are often considered university-preparatory schools.
The Malaysian Higher School Certificate, or more popularly known as the "Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM) is one of the two major pre-university systems for admission to Malaysian public universities. STPM students are housed at selected regular secondary schools and are known as Sixth Formers. The other Ministry programme is a one-year "Malaysian Matriculation Programme, where students attend Matriculation Colleges. Both fall under the Ministry of Education. Candidates technically may apply for admission to degree-level courses with a variety of pre-university examinations considered equivalent with STPM, including A-Level.
In "India, junior colleges substitute preparatory schools.
"Aitchison College, "Sadiq Public School, "Cadet College Petaro, "Cadet College Hasan Abdal, "Army Burn Hall College, and "Lawrence College Ghora Gali are notable preparatory schools in Pakistan.
The "Brent International School and similar schools were founded by Americans upon the American college preparatory model in the early 20th Century during the country's "American colonial period.
In "Singapore, prep schools for universities are known as "junior colleges".
In Hong Kong, some schools offer the 2-year Advanced-level Matriculation Course particularly, such as "Hang Seng School of Commerce, Po Leung Kuk Vicwood K. T. Chong Sixth Form College.
In Japan, prep schools are called "shin-gakkou" (進学校), which literally means a school used to progress into another school. Prep schools in Japan are usually considered prestigious and are often difficult to get into. However, there are many tiers of prep schools, the entry into which depends on the university that the school leads into.
- Peter W. Cookson Jr. and Caroline Hodges Persell, Preparing For Power: America's Elite Boarding Schools (1987)
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- Sarah Alexander Chase, Perfectly prep: Gender extremes at a New England prep school (Oxford University Press, 2008)
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- Heinz-Peter Meidinger: "Berliner Schullotterie". Profil 07-08/2009 (August 24th. 2009)
- Kim, Kyung-keun, and Soo-yong Byun. "Determinants of Academic Achievement in Republic of Korea." in Korean Education in Changing Economic and Demographic Contexts (Springer Singapore, 2014) pp. 13-37.
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