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In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live ("normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions. It may be described as treating actions themselves as abstract objects, putting value to them. It deals with right conduct and living a good life, in the sense that a highly, or at least relatively highly, valuable action may be regarded as ethically "good" ("adjective sense), and an action of low in value, or somewhat relatively low in value, may be regarded as "bad".["citation needed] What makes an action valuable may in turn depend on the ethic values of the objects it increases, decreases or alters. An object with "ethic value" may be termed an "ethic or philosophic good" ("noun sense).

Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person's sense of right and wrong or what "ought" to be. "Equal rights for all", "Excellence deserves admiration", and "People should be treated with respect and dignity" are representative of values. Values tend to influence attitudes and behavior. Types of values include "ethical/"moral values, "doctrinal/"ideological (religious, political) values, "social values, and "aesthetic values. It is debated whether some values that are not clearly physiologically determined, such as "altruism, are "intrinsic, and whether some, such as acquisitiveness, should be classified as "vices or "virtues.



Ethical value may be regarded as a study under "ethics, which, in turn, may be grouped as "philosophy. Similar to that ethics may be regarded as a subfield of philosophy, ethical value may be regarded as a subgroup of the more broad (and vague) "philosophic value. Ethical value denotes something's degree of "importance, with the aim of determining what action or life is best to do, or at least attempt to describe the value of different actions. It may be described as treating actions themselves as abstract objects, putting value to them. It deals with right conduct and good life, in the sense that a highly, or at least relatively highly, valuable action or may be regarded as good, and an action of low, or at least relatively low, value may be regarded as bad.

The study of ethical value is also included in "value theory. In addition, values have been studied in various disciplines: "anthropology, "behavioral economics, "business ethics, "corporate governance, "moral philosophy, "political sciences, "social psychology, "sociology and "theology.

Similar concepts[edit]

Ethical value is sometimes used synonymously with "goodness. However, goodness has many other meanings as well, and may be regarded as more ambiguous.

Personal versus cultural perspectives[edit]

Personal values exist in relation to cultural values, either in agreement with or divergence from prevailing norms. A culture is a social system that shares a set of common values, in which such values permit social expectations and collective understandings of the good, beautiful and constructive. Without normative personal values, there would be no cultural reference against which to measure the virtue of individual values and so cultural identity would disintegrate.

Personal values[edit]

Personal values provide an internal reference for what is good, beneficial, important, useful, beautiful, desirable and constructive. Values generate behaviour[1] and influence the choices made by an individual.

Values may help common human problems for survival by comparative rankings of value, the results of which provide answers to questions of why people do what they do and in what order they choose to do them.["clarification needed] Moral, religious, and personal values, when held rigidly, may also give rise to "conflicts that result from a clash between differing "world views.[2]

Over time the public expression of personal values that groups of people find important in their day-to-day lives, lay the foundations of law, custom and tradition. Recent research has thereby stressed the implicit nature of value communication.[3]

Cultural values[edit]

The "Inglehart–Welzel cultural map of the world, constructed by sociopolitical scientists "Ronald Inglehart and "Christian Welzel based on the "World Values Survey.

Individual "cultures emphasize values which their members broadly share. One can often identify the values of a "society by noting which people receive honor or respect. In the "United States of America, for example, professional athletes at the top levels in some sports receive more honor (measured in terms of monetary payment) than university professors. Surveys show that voters in the United States would not willingly elect an atheist as president, suggesting belief in a God as a generally shared value.

Values clarification differs from cognitive "moral education:

Values relate to the "norms of a culture, but they are more global and abstract than norms. Norms provide rules for behavior in specific situations, while values identify what should be judged as "good or evil. While norms are standards, patterns, rules and guides of expected behavior, values are abstract concepts of what is important and worthwhile. Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm, but it reflects the value of "patriotism. Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are normative behaviors to manifest "respect at a funeral. Different cultures reflect values differently and to different levels of emphasis. "Over the last three decades, traditional-age college students have shown an increased interest in personal well-being and a decreased interest in the welfare of others."[4] Values seemed to have changed, affecting the beliefs, and attitudes of the students.

Members take part in a culture even if each member's personal values do not entirely agree with some of the normative values sanctioned in that culture. This reflects an individual's ability to synthesize and extract aspects valuable to them from the multiple "subcultures they belong to.

If a group member expresses a value that seriously conflicts with the group's norms, the group's authority may carry out various ways of encouraging "conformity or "stigmatizing the "non-conforming behavior of that member. For example, imprisonment can result from conflict with social norms that the state has established as law.["clarification needed]

Furthermore, institutions in the "global economy can genuinely respect values which are of three kinds based on a "triangle of coherence".[5] In the first instance, a value may come to expression within the World Trade Organization ("WTO), as well as (in the second instance) within the United Nations – particularly in the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ("UNESCO) – providing a framework for global legitimacy through accountability. In the third instance, the expertise of member-driven international organizations and civil society depends on the incorporation of flexibility in the rules, to preserve the expression of "identity in a "globalized world.[6]

Nonetheless, in warlike economic competition, differing views may contradict each other, particularly in the field of culture. Thus audiences in Europe may regard a movie as an artistic creation and grant it benefits from special treatment, while audiences in the United States may see it as mere entertainment, whatever its artistic merits. "EU policies based on the notion of "cultural exception" can become juxtaposed with the policy of "cultural specificity" on the liberal Anglo-Saxon side. Indeed, "international law traditionally treats films as property and the content of television programs as a service.["citation needed] Consequently, cultural interventionist policies can find themselves opposed to the Anglo-Saxon liberal position, causing failures in international negotiations.[7]


Values are generally received through cultural means, especially transmission from parents to children. Parents in different cultures have different values.[8] For example, parents in a "hunter–gatherer society or surviving through "subsistence agriculture value practical survival skills from a young age. Many such cultures begin teaching babies to use sharp tools, including knives, before their first birthdays.[9] Italian parents value social and emotional abilities and having an even temperament.[8] Spanish parents want their children to be sociable.[8] Swedish parents value security and happiness.[8] Dutch parents value independence, long attention spans, and predictable schedules.[8] American parents are unusual for strongly valuing intellectual ability, especially in a narrow "book learning" sense.[8] The "Kipsigis people of Kenya value children who are not only smart, but who employ that intelligence in a responsible and helpful way, which they call ng'om. Luos of Kenya value education and pride which they call "nyadhi".[8]

The reception of values can be regarded as a part of "socialization.

Properties and forms[edit]

Relative or absolute[edit]

"Relative values differ between people, and on a larger scale, between people of different cultures. On the other hand, there are theories of the existence of absolute values,[10] which can also be termed "noumenal values (and not to be confused with mathematical "absolute value). An absolute value can be described as "philosophically absolute and independent of individual and cultural views, as well as independent of whether it is known or apprehended or not. "Ludwig Wittgenstein was pessimistic towards the idea that an elucidation would ever happen regarding the absolute values of actions or objects; "we can speak as much as we want about "life" and ""its meaning," and believe that what we say is important. But these are no more than expressions and can never be facts, resulting from a tendency of the mind and not the heart or the will".[11]

Intrinsic or extrinsic[edit]

Philosophic value may be split into "instrumental value and "intrinsic values. An instrumental value is worth having as a means towards getting something else that is good (e.g., a radio is instrumentally good in order to hear music). An intrinsically valuable thing is worth for itself, not as a means to something else. It is giving value "intrinsic and extrinsic properties.

An ethic good with instrumental value may be termed an "ethic mean, and an ethic good with intrinsic value may be termed an "end-in-itself. An object may be both a mean and end-in-itself.


Intrinsic and instrumental goods are not mutually exclusive categories.[12] Some objects are both good in themselves, and also good for getting other objects that are good. "Understanding science" may be such a good, being both worthwhile in and of itself, and as a means of achieving other goods. In these cases, the "sum of instrumental (specifically the "all instrumental value) and intrinsic value of an object may be used when putting that object in "value systems, which is a set of consistent values and measures.


The intensity of philosophic value is the degree it is generated or carried out, and may be regarded as the prevalence of the good, the object having the value.[12]

It should not be confused with the amount of value per object, although the latter may vary too, e.g. because of "instrumental value conditionality. For example, taking a fictional life-stance of accepting waffle-eating as being the end-in-itself, the intensity may be the speed that waffles are eaten, and is zero when no waffles are eaten, e.g. if no waffles are present. Still, each waffle that had been present would still have value, no matter if it was being eaten or not, independent on intensity.

Instrumental value conditionality in this case could be exampled by every waffle not present, making them less valued by being far away rather than easily accessible.

In many "life stances it is the product of value and intensity that is ultimately desirable, i.e. not only to generate value, but to generate it in large degree. Maximizing lifestances have the highest possible intensity as an imperative.

Homology in physics[edit]

When comparing to the homologous measure in physics, then "intensity in physics may not be the best example, but may better be described as its area. In this sense, "power in physics may be compared to the amount of value per object, and physical intensity the product of value per object and ethic intensity. If there is no physical area, then no energy is generated, regardless of physical power. In the same way, if there is no ethic intensity, then no total value is generated, regardless of value per object.

Positive and negative value[edit]

There may be a distinction between positive and negative philosophic or ethic value. While positive ethic value generally correlates with something that is pursued or maximized, negative ethic value correlates with something that is avoided or minimized.

Negative value may be both "intrinsic negative value and/or "instrumental negative value.

Protected value[edit]

A protected value (also sacred value) is one that an individual is unwilling to trade off no matter what the benefits of doing so may be. For example, some people may be unwilling to kill another person, even if it means saving many others individuals. Protected values tend to be "intrinsically good", and most people can in fact imagine a scenario when trading off their most precious values would be necessary.[13] If such trade-offs happen between two competing protected values such as killing a person and defending your family they are called tragic trade-offs.[14]

Protected values have been found to be play a role in protracted conflicts (e.g., the "Israeli-Palestinian conflict) because they can hinder businesslike (''utilitarian'') negotiations.[15] A series of experimental studies directed by "Scott Atran and Ángel Gómez among combatants on the "ISIS frontline in Iraq and with ordinary citizens in Western Europe [16] suggest that commitment to sacred values motivate the most "devoted actors" to make the costliest sacrifices, including willingness to fight and die, as well as a readiness to forsake close kin and comrades for those values if necessary.[17] From the perspective of "utilitarianism, protected values are "biases when they prevent utility from being maximized across individuals.[18]

According to "Jonathan Baron and Mark Spranca,[19] protected values arise from "norms as described in theories of "deontological ethics (the latter often being referred to in context with "Immanuel Kant). The protectedness implies that people are concerned with their participation in transactions rather than just the consequences of it.

Value system[edit]

A value system is a set of "consistent values used for the purpose of "ethical or "ideological "integrity.


As a member of a society, group or community, an individual can hold both a personal value system and a communal value system at the same time. In this case, the two value systems (one personal and one communal) are externally "consistent provided they bear no contradictions or situational exceptions between them.

A value system in its own right is internally consistent when

Conversely, a value system by itself is internally inconsistent if:

Value exceptions[edit]

Abstract exceptions serve to reinforce the ranking of values. Their definitions are generalized enough to be relevant to any and all situations. Situational exceptions, on the other hand, are ad hoc and pertain only to specific situations. The presence of a type of exception determines one of two more kinds of value systems:

The difference between these two types of systems can be seen when people state that they hold one value system yet in practice deviate from it, thus holding a different value system. For example, a "religion lists an absolute set of values while the practice of that religion may include exceptions.

Implicit exceptions bring about a third type of value system called a formal value system. Whether idealized or realized, this type contains an implicit exception associated with each value: "as long as no higher-priority value is violated". For instance, a person might feel that lying is wrong. Since preserving a life is probably more highly valued than adhering to the principle that lying is wrong, lying to save someone’s life is acceptable. Perhaps too simplistic in practice, such a hierarchical structure may warrant explicit exceptions.


Although sharing a set of common values, like hockey is better than baseball or ice cream is better than fruit, two different parties might not rank those values equally. Also, two parties might disagree as to certain actions are "right or "wrong, both in theory and in practice, and find themselves in an "ideological or physical conflict. "Ethonomics, the discipline of rigorously examining and comparing value systems["citation needed], enables us to understand "politics and motivations more fully in order to resolve conflicts.

An example conflict would be a value system based on "individualism pitted against a value system based on "collectivism. A rational value system organized to resolve the conflict between two such value systems might take the form below. Note that added exceptions can become "recursive and often convoluted.

Economic and philosophic value[edit]

Philosophical value is distinguished from "economic value, since it is independent on some other desired condition or commodity. The economic value of an object may rise when the exchangeable desired condition or commodity, e.g. money, become high in supply, and vice versa when supply of money becomes low.

Nevertheless, economic value may be regarded as a result of philosophical value. In the "subjective theory of value, the "personal philosophic value a person puts in possessing something is reflected in what economic value this person puts on it. The limit where a person considers to purchase something may be regarded as the point where the personal philosophic value of possessing something exceeds the personal philosophic value of what is given up in exchange for it, e.g. money. In this light, everything can be said to have a "personal economic value" in contrast to its "societal economic value."

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Rokeach, Milton (1973). The Nature of Human Values. New York: The Free Press. 
  2. ^ Maiese, Michelle. "Causes of Disputes and Conflicts." Beyond Intractability. Ed. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. October 2003. Downloaded 13 February 2016.
  3. ^ Common values? Fifty-Two Cases of Value Semantics Copying on Corporate Websites by Steffen Roth. Human Systems Management 32(4) (2013): 249–65. "doi:10.3233/HSM-130801
  4. ^ a b c Santrock, J.W. (2007). A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development. New York, NY: "McGraw-Hill
  5. ^ Lamy, Pascal, WTO Director-General, Speech to the European University Institute in Florence on 19 February 2011 (
  6. ^ Lynn R. Kahle, Pierre Valette-Florence (2012). Marketplace Lifestyles in an Age of Social Media. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc. "ISBN "978-0-7656-2561-8. 
  7. ^ Hacker, Violaine (2011a), "Building Medias Industry while promoting a community of values in the globalization: from quixotic choices to pragmatic boon for EU Citizens", Politické Védy-Journal of Political Science, Slovakia, pp. 64–74.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Day, Nicholas (10 April 2013). "Parental ethnotheories and how parents in America differ from parents everywhere else.". "Slate. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  9. ^ Day, Nicholas (9 April 2013). "Give Your Baby a Machete". "Slate. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  10. ^ On Wittgenstein's Claim That Ethical Value Judgments Are Nonsense by Arto Tukiainen. Minerva – An Internet Journal of Philosophy 15 (2011): 102–11. "ISSN 1393-614X
  11. ^ Yaniv Iczkovits (2012). Wittgenstein's Ethical Thought. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 46. "ISBN "9781137026354. 
  12. ^ a b Inherent and Instrumental Values in Ethics by Stanley Riukas
  13. ^ Ritov, and Baron, Ilana, and Jonathan. Protected Values and Omission Bias (PDF). University of Jerusalem, University of Pennsilvanya. pp. 89, 90. 
  14. ^ Tetlock, Philip E. "Thinking the unthinkable: sacred values and taboo cognitions". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 7 (7): 320–24. "doi:10.1016/s1364-6613(03)00135-9. 
  15. ^ Atran, Scott; Ginges, Jeremy (2012-05-18). "Religious and Sacred Imperatives in Human Conflict". Science. 336 (6083): 855–57. "ISSN 0036-8075. "PMID 22605762. "doi:10.1126/science.1216902. 
  16. ^ "The devoted actor’s will to fight and the spiritual dimension of human conflict". Nature Human Behaviour. 1. 2017. "doi:10.1038/s41562-017-0193-3. 
  17. ^ Hutson, Mathew (September 5, 2017). "Why do people die fighting for a cause?". Science. Retrieved September 12, 2017. 
  18. ^ Baron, Jonathan, Ilana, Ritov (2009). Protected Values and omissions Bias as Deontological Judgements (PDF). Elsevier Inc. pp. 134–35. 
  19. ^ Baron, Jonathan and Spranca, Mark (1997). "Protected values". Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 70(1), 1–16.

Further reading[edit]

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