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Verona
"Comune
Città di Verona
""A collage of Verona, clockwise from top left to right: View of Piazza Bra from Verona Arena, House of Juliet, Verona Arena, Ponte Pietra at sunset, Statue of Madonna Verona's fountain in Piazza Erbe, view of Piazza Erbe from Lamberti Tower
A collage of Verona, clockwise from top left to right: View of Piazza Bra from Verona Arena, House of Juliet, Verona Arena, Ponte Pietra at sunset, Statue of Madonna Verona's fountain in Piazza Erbe, view of Piazza Erbe from Lamberti Tower
""Flag of Verona
Flag
""Verona is located in Italy
Verona
Verona
""Verona is located in Veneto
Verona
Verona
""Verona is located in Europe
Verona
Verona
Location of Verona in Italy
Coordinates: 45°26′N 10°59′E / 45.433°N 10.983°E / 45.433; 10.983"Coordinates: 45°26′N 10°59′E / 45.433°N 10.983°E / 45.433; 10.983
Country "Italy
"Region "Veneto
"Province "Verona (VR)
"Frazioni Avesa, San Michele Extra, San Massimo all'Adige, Quinzano, Quinto di Valpantena, Poiano di Valpantena, Parona di Valpolicella, Montorio Veronese, Mizzole, Marchesino, Chievo, Cà di David e Moruri
Government
 • Mayor Federico Sboarina ("centre-right)
Area
 • Total 206.63 km2 (79.78 sq mi)
Elevation 59 m (194 ft)
Population (2015)
 • Total 259,069
 • Density 1,300/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
"Demonym(s) Veronesi or Scaligeri
"Time zone "CET ("UTC+1)
 • Summer ("DST) "CEST ("UTC+2)
Postal code 37100
"Dialing code 045
Patron saint "Saint Zeno of Verona
Saint day 12 April
Website Official website
"UNESCO World Heritage Site
"Criteria Cultural: ii, iv
Reference 797
Inscription 2000 (24th "Session)
Area 444.4 ha
Buffer zone 303.98 ha

Verona (Italian pronunciation: "[veˈroːna] (""About this sound listen); "Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the "Adige river in "Veneto, "Italy, with approximately 265,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region. It is the second largest city "municipality in the region and the third largest in "northeast Italy. The "metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1,426 km2 (550.58 sq mi) and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants.[1] It is one of the main tourist destinations in northern Italy, owing to its artistic heritage, several annual fairs, shows, and "operas, such as the lyrical season in the "Arena, the ancient "amphitheater built by the "Romans.

Three of Shakespeare's plays are set in Verona: "Romeo and Juliet, "The Two Gentlemen of Verona, and "The Taming of the Shrew. It is unknown if Shakespeare ever visited Verona or Italy at all, but his plays have lured many visitors to Verona and surrounding cities. The city has been awarded "World Heritage Site status by "UNESCO because of its urban structure and architecture.

Contents

Etymology[edit]

According to a theory that considers the geographical position of the city, Verona was a key step for those from "Eastern Gaul across the Alps to Rome along the Via Claudia Augusta. Verona is short for Versus Romae which means "In the direction of Rome". The -ona suffix, found in many Gallic names, is a simple deformation due to incorrect auditory perception that leads any person to hear the sound of a foreign language as a common sound in their own language, so to pronounce it and write it incorrectly.["citation needed]

The exclamation Vae Romae if understood in Latin means "Alas Rome". In fact, to express distress or denounce a disgrace ancient Romans used the Latin interjection vae. So, you also explain the famous poem by William Shakespeare "There is no world without Verona walls, But purgatory, torture, hell itself. Hence-banished is banish'd from the world, And world's exile is death.". The writer would express a Roman concept through its character named Romeo, a name that invokes Rome, according to which the city of Verona was a boundary between the Roman world and barbaric one. Verona was a place of passage and to place horses, for those who wanted to go and had walked the Via Claudia Augusta, the Roman road that led over the Alps, or that led to Rome. So the expression Vae Romae "Alas Rome" would indicate spirit of the place, the "genius loci" of the city, expression of a spirit then called Verona. The exclamation Vae Romae would be the expression of the spirit that pervaded the Romans who left the place with a sense of anguish, this expression would later become the name for the place, that is "Alas Roma", which then turned into Verona.

Another theory is that it is connected to the river. "Vera" was a name of the river Adige before the adoption of the current name.["citation needed] As in many similar instances in Europe the name of the town is formed with the addition of suffix -ona which means settlement over.

The city was sometimes archaically known as "Welsch-Bern" in "German.

History[edit]

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The Roman "Ponte Pietra in Verona

The precise details of Verona's early history remain a mystery. One theory is it was a city of the "Euganei, who were obliged to give it up to the "Cenomani (550 BC). With the conquest of the Valley of the "Po the Veronese territory became Roman (about 300 BC). Verona became a Roman colonia in 89 BC, and then a municipium in 49 BC when its citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe Poblilia or Publicia.

The city became important because it was at the intersection of several roads. "Stilicho defeated "Alaric and his "Visigoths here in 403. But, after Verona was conquered by the "Ostrogoths in 489, the "Gothic domination of Italy began. "Theoderic the Great was said to have built a palace there. It remained under the power of the Goths throughout the "Gothic War (535–552), except for a single day in 541, when the Byzantine officer "Artabazes made an entrance. The defections that took place among the Byzantine generals with regard to the booty made it possible for the Goths to regain possession of the city. In 552 Valerian vainly endeavored to enter the city, but it was only when they were fully overthrown that the Goths surrendered it.

In 569, it was taken by "Alboin, King of the "Lombards, in whose kingdom it was, in a sense, the second most important city. There, Alboin himself was killed by his own wife in 572. The dukes of Treviso often resided there. At Verona "Adalgisus, son of "Desiderius, in 774 made his last desperate resistance to "Charlemagne, who had destroyed the Lombard kingdom. Verona was then the ordinary residence of the "kings of Italy, the government of the city becoming hereditary in the family of Count "Milo, progenitor of the counts of "San Bonifacio. From 880 to 951 the two Berengarii resided there. "Otto I ceded to Verona the marquisate dependent on the Duchy of "Bavaria.

When "Ezzelino III da Romano was elected podestà, in 1226, he was able to convert the office into a permanent lordship, and in 1257 he caused the slaughter of 11,000 Paduans on the plain of Verona (Campi di Verona). Upon his death the Great Council elected as podestà Mastino I della Scala, and he converted the "signoria" into a family possession, though leaving the burghers a share in the government. Failing to be re-elected podestà in 1262, he effected a coup d'état, and was acclaimed capitano del popolo, with the command of the communal troops. It was not without long internal discord that he succeeded in establishing this new office, to which was attached the function of confirming the podestà. In 1277, Mastino dello Scala was killed by the faction of the nobles.

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Equestrian Statue of "Cangrande I

The reign of his son Alberto as capitano (1277–1302) was one incessant war against the counts of San Bonifacio, who were aided by the House of Este. Of his sons, Bartolomeo, Alboino and "Cangrande I, only the last shared the government (1308); he was great as warrior, prince, and patron of the arts; he protected "Dante, "Petrarch, and "Giotto. By war or treaty, he brought under his control the cities of "Padua (1328), "Treviso (1308) and "Vicenza. At this time before the "Black death the city was home to more than 40,000 people.[2]

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The "Lion of Saint Mark, located in Piazza delle Erbe, symbol of Venetian Verona

Cangrande was succeeded by "Mastino II (1329–1351) and Alberto, sons of Alboino. Mastino continued his uncle's policy, conquering "Brescia in 1332 and carrying his power beyond the Po. He purchased "Parma (1335) and "Lucca (1339). After the "King of France, he was the richest prince of his time. But a powerful league was formed against him in 1337 – "Florence, "Venice, the "Visconti, the "Este, and the "Gonzaga. After a three years war, the "Scaliger dominions were reduced to Verona and "Vicenza (Mastino's daughter Regina-Beatrice della Scala married to "Barnabò Visconti). Mastino's son "Cangrande II (1351–1359) was a cruel, dissolute, and suspicious tyrant; not trusting his own subjects, he surrounded himself with Brandenburg mercenaries. He was killed by his brother Cansignorio (1359–1375), who beautified the city with palaces, provided it with aqueducts and bridges, and founded the state treasury. He also killed his other brother, Paolo Alboino. Fratricide seems to have become a family custom, for Antonio (1375–87), Cansignorio's natural brother, slew his brother Bartolomeo, thereby arousing the indignation of the people, who deserted him when "Gian Galeazzo Visconti of "Milan made war on him. Having exhausted all his resources, he fled from Verona at midnight (19 October 1387), thus putting an end to the Scaliger domination, which, however, survived in its monuments.

The year 1387 is also the year of the famous "Battle of Castagnaro, between "Giovanni Ordelaffi, for Verona, and "John Hawkwood, for "Padua, who was the winner.

Antonio's son "Canfrancesco attempted in vain to recover Verona (1390). Guglielmo (1404), natural son of Cangrande II, was more fortunate; with the support of the people, he drove out the "Milanese, but he died ten days after, and Verona then "submitted to Venice (1405). The last representatives of the Scaligeri lived at the imperial court and repeatedly attempted to recover Verona by the aid of popular risings.

From 1508 to 1517, the city was in the power of the "Emperor Maximilian I. There were numerous outbreaks of the "plague, and in "1629–33 Italy was struck by its worst outbreak in modern times. Around 33,000 people died in Verona (over 60 per cent of the population at the time) in 1630–1631.[3]

In 1776 was developed a method of bellringing called "Veronese bellringing art. Verona was occupied by "Napoleon in 1797, but on "Easter Monday the populace rose and drove out the French. It was then that Napoleon made an end of the "Venetian Republic. Verona became "Austrian territory when Napoleon signed the "Treaty of Campo Formio in October 1797. The Austrians took control of the city on 18 January 1798. It was taken from Austria by the "Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 and became part of Napoleon's "Kingdom of Italy, but was returned to Austria following Napoleon's defeat in 1814, when it became part of the Austrian-held "Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia.

The "Congress of Verona, which met on 20 October 1822, was part of the "series of international conferences or congresses that opened with the "Congress of Vienna in 1814–15 - and marked the effective breakdown of the ""Concert of Europe".

In 1866, following the Six Weeks War, Verona, along with the rest of Venetia, became part of United Italy.

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The "Arche scaligere, tombs of the ancient lords of Verona.

The advent of "fascism added another dark chapter to the annals of Verona. As throughout Italy, the Jewish population was hit by the "Manifesto of Race, a series of anti-Semitic laws passed in 1938, and after the invasion by "Nazi Germany in 1943, deportations to "Nazi concentration camps. An Austrian Fort (now a church, the Santuario della Madonna di Lourdes), was used to incarcerate and torture "Allied troops, Jews and "anti-fascists, especially after 1943, when Verona became part of the "Italian Social Republic.

As in Austrian times, Verona became of great strategic importance to the regime. "Galeazzo Ciano, "Benito Mussolini's son-in-law, was accused of plotting against the republic; in a "show trial staged by the Nazi and fascist hierarchy at "Castelvecchio (the "Verona trial), Ciano was executed on the banks of the Adige with many other officers on what is today Via Colombo. This marked another turning point in the escalation of violence that would only end with the final liberation by allied troops and partisans in 1945.

After World War II, as Italy entered into "NATO, Verona once again acquired its strategic importance, due to its closeness to the "Iron Curtain. The city became the seat of SETAF (South European Allied Terrestrial Forces) and had during the whole duration of the "Cold War period a strong military presence, especially American, which is decreasing only in these recent years. Now Verona is an important and dynamic city, very active in terms of economy, and also a very important tourist attraction because of its history, where the Roman past lives side by side with the Middle Age Verona, which in some senses brings about its architectural and artistic motifs.

Climate[edit]

Verona has a "humid subtropical climate characteristic of Northern Italy's inland plains, with hot summers and cold, humid winters, even though "Lake Garda has a partial influence on the city.[4] The "relative humidity is high throughout the year, especially in winter when it causes "fog, mainly from dusk until late morning, although the phenomenon has become increasingly less frequent in recent years.

Climate data for Verona (1971–2000, extremes 1946–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.8
(67.6)
22.1
(71.8)
27.2
(81)
31.8
(89.2)
36.6
(97.9)
36.4
(97.5)
38.2
(100.8)
39.0
(102.2)
33.2
(91.8)
29.2
(84.6)
23.6
(74.5)
18.8
(65.8)
39.0
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F) 6.1
(43)
8.9
(48)
13.4
(56.1)
17.2
(63)
22.7
(72.9)
26.3
(79.3)
29.2
(84.6)
28.8
(83.8)
24.4
(75.9)
18.0
(64.4)
11.0
(51.8)
6.7
(44.1)
17.7
(63.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.5
(36.5)
4.5
(40.1)
8.4
(47.1)
12.0
(53.6)
17.2
(63)
20.8
(69.4)
23.6
(74.5)
23.3
(73.9)
19.0
(66.2)
13.3
(55.9)
7.1
(44.8)
3.1
(37.6)
12.9
(55.2)
Average low °C (°F) −1.2
(29.8)
0.1
(32.2)
3.4
(38.1)
6.8
(44.2)
11.7
(53.1)
15.4
(59.7)
18.0
(64.4)
17.8
(64)
13.7
(56.7)
8.7
(47.7)
3.2
(37.8)
−0.4
(31.3)
8.1
(46.6)
Record low °C (°F) −18.4
(−1.1)
−18.4
(−1.1)
−10.4
(13.3)
−2.2
(28)
0.0
(32)
3.8
(38.8)
7.3
(45.1)
8.1
(46.6)
2.0
(35.6)
−4.6
(23.7)
−7.9
(17.8)
−15.5
(4.1)
−18.4
(−1.1)
Average "precipitation mm (inches) 50.9
(2.004)
43.3
(1.705)
48.7
(1.917)
70.4
(2.772)
74.2
(2.921)
87.2
(3.433)
62.6
(2.465)
81.7
(3.217)
76.2
(3)
91.0
(3.583)
64.8
(2.551)
52.5
(2.067)
803.5
(31.634)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.8 5.1 6.0 8.9 8.6 8.6 5.5 5.8 6.0 7.4 7.1 6.2 82.0
Average "relative humidity (%) 85 78 73 75 73 73 73 74 76 81 84 84 77
Mean monthly "sunshine hours 94 102 156 180 241 255 304 262 199 158 72 81 2,104
Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico (humidity 1961–1990)[5][6][7]
Source #2: "Danish Meteorological Institute (sun, 1931–1960)[8]

Demographics[edit]

In 2009, there were 265,368 people residing in Verona, located in the province of Verona, "Veneto, of whom 47.6% were male and 52.4% were female. Minors (children aged 0–17) totalled 16.05% of the population compared to pensioners who number 22.36%. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06% (minors) and 19.94%(pensioners). The average age of Verona residents is 43 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Verona grew by 3.05%, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.85%.[9] The current "birth rate of Verona is 9.24 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

As of 2009, 87% of the population was "Italian.[10] The largest immigrant group comes from other European nations (the largest coming from "Romania): 3.60%, "South Asia: 2.03%, and "sub-saharan Africa 1.50%. The city is predominantly "Roman Catholic, but due to immigration now has some "Orthodox Christian, and "Muslim followers.

2017 largest resident foreign-born groups[11]
Country of birth Population
"Romania "Romania 12,520
"Sri Lanka "Sri Lanka 7,234
"Moldova "Moldova 5,008
"Nigeria "Nigeria 3,233
"Morocco "Morocco 2,857
"Albania "Albania 2,500
"China "China 1,975
"Ghana "Ghana 1,444
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Panoramic view of the city from Castel San Pietro

Government[edit]

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Palazzo Barbieri is Verona City Hall.
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Palazzo del Governo is the seat of the Province of Verona.

Since local government political reorganization in 1993, Verona has been governed by the City Council of Verona, which is based in Palazzo Barbieri. Voters elect directly 33 councilors and the Mayor of Verona every five years. Verona is also the capital of its own province. The Provincial Council is seated in Palazzo del Governo. The current Mayor of Verona is Federico Sboarina ("LN), elected on 26 June 2017.

This is a list of the mayors of Verona since 1946:

Mayor Term start Term end   Party
Aldo Fedeli 1946 1951 "PSI
Giovanni Uberti 1951 1956 "DC
Giorgio Zanotto 1956 1965 DC
Renato Gozzi 1965 1970 DC
Carlo Delaini 1970 1975 DC
Renato Gozzi 1975 1980 DC
Gabriele Sboarina 1980 1990 DC
Aldo Sala 1990 1993 DC
Enzo Erminero 1993 1994 DC
Michela Sironi Mariotti 27 June 1994 28 May 2002 "FI
Paolo Zanotto 28 May 2002 28 May 2007 "DL
"Flavio Tosi 28 May 2007 26 June 2017 "LN
Federico Sboarina 26 June 2017 incumbent "LN

Main sights[edit]

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The "Ponte Scaligero, completed in 1356
See also: "Category:Buildings and structures in Verona.

Because of the value and importance of its many historical buildings, Verona has been named a "UNESCO "World Heritage Site. Verona preserved many ancient Roman monuments, no longer in use, in the "early Middle Ages, but much of this and much of its early medieval edifices were destroyed or heavily damaged by the "earthquake of 3 January 1117, which led to a massive "Romanesque rebuilding. The "Carolingian period "Versus de Verona contains an important description of Verona in the early medieval era.

Roman edifices[edit]

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The "Roman military settlement in what is now the centre of the city was to expand through the "cardines and "decumani that intersect at right angles. This structure has been kept to the present day and is clearly visible from the air. Further development has not reshaped the original map. Though the Roman city with its basalt-paved roads is mostly hidden from view it stands virtually intact about 6 m below the surface. Most palazzi and houses have cellars built on Roman artifacts that are rarely accessible to visitors. "Piazza delle Erbe, near the Roman forum was rebuilt by "Cangrande I and "Cansignorio della Scala I, lords of Verona, using material (such as marble blocks and statues) from Roman spas and villas.

Verona is famous for its Roman "amphitheatre, the "Arena, found in the city's largest piazza, the "Piazza Bra. Completed around 30 AD, it is the third largest in Italy after Rome's "Colosseum and the arena at "Capua. It measures 139 metres long and 110 metres wide, and could seat some 25,000 spectators in its 44 tiers of marble seats. The "ludi (shows and "gladiator games) performed within its walls were so famous that they attracted spectators from far beyond the city. The current two-story "façade is actually the internal support for the tiers; only a fragment of the original outer perimeter wall in white and pink "limestone from "Valpolicella, with three stories remains.The interior is very impressive and is virtually intact, and has remained in use even today for public events, fairs, theatre and open-aired "opera during warm summer nights.

There is also a variety of other "Roman monuments to be found in the town, such as the "Roman theatre of Verona. This theatre was built in the 1st century BC, but through the ages had fallen in disuse and had been built upon to provide housing. In the 18th century Andrea Monga, a wealthy Veronese, bought all the houses that in time had been built over the theatre, demolished them, and saved the monument. Not far from it is the "Ponte di Pietra ("Stone Wall Bridge"), another Roman landmark that has survived to this day.

The "Arco dei Gavi (Gavi Arch) was built in the 1st century AD, and is famous for having the name of the builder (architect "Lucius Vitruvius Cordone) engraved on it, a rare case in the architecture of the epoque. It originally straddled the main "Roman road into the city, now the Corso Cavour. It was demolished by French troops in 1805 and rebuilt in 1932.

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Piazza dei Signori
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"San Zeno Basilica, like many other Veronese churches, is built with alternating layers of white stone and bricks
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The balcony of "Juliet's house
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The Portoni della Bra

Nearby is the "Porta Borsari, an archway at the end of Corso Porta Borsari. This is the façade of a 3rd-century gate in the original Roman "city walls. The inscription is dated 245 AD and gives the city name as Colonia Verona Augusta. Corso Porta Borsari, the road passing through the gate is the original "Via Sacra of the Roman city. Today, it is lined with several "Renaissance "palazzi and the ancient "Church of Santi Apostoli, a few metres from Piazza delle Erbe.

"Porta Leoni is the 1st century BC ruin of what was once part of the Roman "city gate. A substantial portion is still standing as part of the wall of a medieval building. The street itself is an open "archaeological site, and the remains of the original Roman street and gateway foundations can be seen a few feet below the present street level. As can be seen from there, the gate contains a small court guarded by towers. Here, carriages and travelers were inspected before entering or leaving the city.

Medieval architecture[edit]

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With a span length of 48.70 m (159.78 ft), the segmental "arch bridge "Ponte Scaligero featured, at the time of its completion in 1356, the world's largest bridge arch.

Notable people[edit]

Verona was the birthplace of "Catullus, and the town that "Julius Caesar chose for relaxing stays. It has had an association with many important people and events that have been significant in the history of Europe, such as "Theoderic the Great, king of "Ostrogoths, "Alboin and "Rosamund, the "Lombard Dukes, "Charlemagne and "Pippin of Italy, "Berengar I, and "Dante. "Conclaves were held here, as were important congresses. Verona featured in the travel diaries of "Goethe, "Stendhal, "Paul Valéry and "Michel de Montaigne.

Sport[edit]

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"Stadio Marcantonio Bentegodi, which was used as a venue at the "1990 FIFA World Cup is home to Verona's major football clubs "Hellas Verona and "Chievo Verona.

The city has three professional "football teams. Historically, the city's major team has been "Hellas Verona. Hellas Verona won the Italian "Serie A championship in "1984-85, and played in the "European Cup the following year. "Chievo Verona represents "Chievo, a suburb of Verona. As of the 2017-18 season, both clubs play in the first division of "Italian football, "Serie A. The teams contest the "Derby della Scala and share the 38,402-seater "Stadio Marcantonio Bentegodi, which was used as a venue at the "1990 FIFA World Cup. "Virtus Vecomp Verona are another Verona-based football club.

Verona is home to the volleyball team Marmi Lanza Verona (now in Serie A1), the rugby team Franklin and Marshall Cus Verona Rugby (now in Serie A1), and the basketball team "Scaligera Basket (now in Legadue).

The city has twice hosted the "UCI Road World Championships, in "1999 (with "Treviso as co-host) and in "2004. The city also regularly hosts stages of the "Giro d'Italia annual cycling race. Verona also hosted the baseball world cup in 2009, and the Volleyball World Cup in September–October 2010. Verona is hosting the Volleyball Women's World Championship in September–October 2014.[12]

Infrastructure and transport[edit]

Buses[edit]

Buses are operated by the provincial public transport company, Azienda Trasporti Verona (ATV).

Railways[edit]

Verona lies at a major route crossing where the north-south rail line from the "Brenner Pass to Rome intersects with the east-west line between Milan and Venice, giving the city rail access to most of Europe. In addition to regional and local services the city is served by direct international trains to Zurich, Innsbruck and Munich and by overnight sleeper services to Paris and Dijon (Thello), Munich and Vienna (ÖBB).

Verona's main station is "Verona Porta Nuova railway station, to the south of the city centre. It is considered to be the ninth busiest railway station in Italy, handling approximately 68,000 passengers per day, or 25 million passengers per year.[13]

There is a lesser station to the east of the city at Porta Vescovo, which used to be the main station in Verona, but now only receives trains between Venice and Porta Nuova.

Airport[edit]

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Verona airport

"Verona Airport is located 10 "km (6.2 mi) southwest of Verona. It handles around 3 million passengers per year. It is linked to Porta Nuova railway station by a frequent bus service.[13]

There are direct flights between Verona and "Rome Fiumicino, Munich, Berlin, Moscow, Naples, Frankfurt, Catania, "Paris Charles De Gaulle, "London Gatwick, Dublin, Palermo,Cork, Manchester, "Vienna Schwechat, Liverpool[14] and Cagliari among others.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Verona is "twined with eight cities:[15]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Tales of Verona"
  2. ^ David Abulafia, Short Oxford History of Italy: Italy in the Central Middle Ages, Oxford University Press, 2004
  3. ^ "Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on human history". J. N. Hays (2005). p.103. "ISBN "1-85109-658-2
  4. ^ Thomas A. Blair, Climatology: General and Regional, Prentice Hall pages 131-132; Adriana Rigutti, Meteorologia, Giunti, p, 95, 2009.
  5. ^ "Verona/Villafranca (VR)" (PDF). Atlante climatico. Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 11 December 2014. 
  6. ^ "STAZIONE 090-VERONA VILLAFRANCA: medie mensili periodo 61 - 90". Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  7. ^ "Verona Villafranca: Record mensili dal 1946" (in Italian). Servizio Meteorologico dell’Aeronautica Militare. Retrieved 11 December 2014. 
  8. ^ Cappelen, John; Jensen, Jens. "Italien - Verona" (PDF). Climate Data for Selected Stations (1931-1960) (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. p. 148. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2017. 
  9. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 6 May 2009. 
  10. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 20 January 2010. 
  11. ^ Cittadini Stranieri - Verona
  12. ^ "Volleyball Women's World Championship 2014". FIVB. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  13. ^ a b "Trains to and from Verona Airport (VRN)". Italian Airport Guide. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  14. ^ Liverpool - Verona Archived 8 September 2015 at the "Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h "Gemellaggi" (official site) (in Italian). Verona, Italy: Comune di Verona. Retrieved 7 April 2017. 
  16. ^ "Međunarodna suradnja Grada Pule". Grad Pula (in Croatian and Italian). Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 

External links[edit]

"" Media related to Verona at Wikimedia Commons

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