Vice presidents are elected "indirectly in the United States. A number of electors, collectively known as the "Electoral College, officially select the president. On "Election Day, voters in each of the states and the "District of Columbia cast ballots for these electors. Each state is allocated a number of electors, equal to the size of its delegation in both Houses of Congress combined. Generally, the ticket that wins the most votes in a state wins all of that state's electoral votes and thus has its slate of electors chosen to vote in the Electoral College.
The winning slate of electors meet at its state's capital on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, to vote. They then send a record of that vote to Congress. The vote of the electors is opened by the sitting vice president, acting in his capacity as "President of the Senate and read aloud to a "joint session of the incoming Congress, which was elected at the same time as the president. Pursuant to the "Twentieth Amendment, the vice president's term of office begins at noon on January 20 of the year following the election. This date, known as "Inauguration Day, marks the beginning of the four-year terms of both the president and vice president.
Although Article VI requires that the vice president take an oath or affirmation of allegiance to the US Constitution, unlike the president, the "United States Constitution does not specify the precise wording of the "oath of office for the vice president. Several variants of the oath have been used since 1789; the current form, which is also recited by "Senators, "Representatives and other government officers, has been used since 1884:
I, (first name last name), do solemnly swear (or "affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God.
The term of office for vice president is four years. While the "Twenty-Second Amendment generally restricts the president to two terms, there is no similar limitation on the office of vice president, meaning an eligible person could hold the office as long as voters continued to vote for electors who in turn would renew the vice president's tenure. A vice president could even serve under different administrations, as "George Clinton and "John C. Calhoun have done.
Original election process and reform
Under the original terms of the Constitution, the electors of the "Electoral College voted only for office of president rather than for both president and vice president. Each elector was allowed to vote for two people for the top office. The person receiving the greatest number of votes (provided that such a number was a majority of electors) would be president, while the individual who received the next largest number of votes became vice president. If no one received a majority of votes, then the "House of Representatives would choose among the five candidates with the largest numbers of votes, with each state's representatives together casting a single vote. In such a case, the person who received the highest number of votes but was not chosen president would become vice president. In the case of a tie for second, then the "Senate would choose the vice president.
The original plan, however, did not foresee the development of "political parties and their adversarial role in the government. For example, in the "election of 1796, "Federalist "John Adams came in first, but because the Federalist electors had divided their second vote amongst several vice presidential candidates, "Democratic-Republican "Thomas Jefferson came second. Thus, the president and vice president were from opposing parties. Predictably, Adams and Jefferson clashed over issues such as states' rights and foreign policy.
A greater problem occurred in the "election of 1800, in which the two participating parties each had a secondary candidate they intended to elect as vice president, but the more popular Democratic-Republican party failed to execute that plan with their electoral votes. Under the system in place at the time ("Article II, Section 1, Clause 3), the electors could not differentiate between their two candidates, so the plan had been for one elector to vote for "Thomas Jefferson but not for "Aaron Burr, thus putting Burr in second place. This plan broke down for reasons that are disputed, and both candidates received the same number of votes. After 35 deadlocked ballots in the House of Representatives, Jefferson finally won on the 36th ballot and Burr became vice president.
This tumultuous affair led to the adoption of the "Twelfth Amendment in 1804, which directed the electors to use separate ballots to vote for the president and vice president. While this solved the problem at hand, it ultimately had the effect of lowering the prestige of the vice presidency, as the office was no longer for the leading challenger for the presidency. The separate ballots for president and vice president became something of a moot issue later in the 19th century when it became the norm for popular elections to determine a state's Electoral College delegation.["citation needed] Electors chosen this way are pledged to vote for a particular presidential and vice presidential candidate (offered by the same political party). So, while the Constitution says that the president and vice president are chosen separately, in practice they are chosen together.
If no vice presidential candidate receives an Electoral College majority, then the Senate selects the vice president, in accordance with the "United States Constitution. The Twelfth Amendment states that a "majority of the whole number" of Senators (currently 51 of 100) is necessary for election. Further, the language requiring an absolute majority of Senate votes precludes the sitting vice president from breaking any tie which might occur. The election of 1836 is the only election so far where the office of the vice president has been decided by the Senate. During the campaign, "Martin Van Buren's running mate "Richard Mentor Johnson was accused of having lived with a black woman. Virginia's 23 electors, who were pledged to Van Buren and Johnson, refused to vote for Johnson (but still voted for Van Buren). The election went to the Senate, where Johnson was elected 33-17.
The vice president's salary is $230,700. The salary was set by the 1989 Government Salary Reform Act, which also provides an automatic cost of living adjustment for federal employees. The vice president does not automatically receive a pension based on that office, but instead receives the same pension as other members of Congress based on his position as President of the Senate. The vice president must serve a minimum of two years to qualify for a pension.
Since 1974, the official residence of the vice president and their family has been "Number One Observatory Circle, on the grounds of the "United States Naval Observatory in "Washington, D.C.
"Article I, Section 2, Clause 5 and "Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution both authorize the House of Representatives to serve as a ""grand jury" with the power to impeach high federal officials, including the president, for "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors." Similarly, "Article I, Section 3, Clause 6 and "Article II, Section 4 both authorize the Senate to serve as a court with the power to remove impeached officials from office, given a two-thirds vote to convict. No vice president has ever been impeached.
Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment in 1967, no constitutional provision existed for filling an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency. As a result, when one occurred, the office was left vacant until filled through the next ensuing election and inauguration. Between 1812 and 1967, the vice presidency was vacant on sixteen occasions—as a result of seven deaths, one resignation, and eight cases in which the vice president succeeded to the presidency.
Since the Twenty-Fifth Amendment "came into force the office has been vacant twice, until the confirmation of a new vice president by both houses of "Congress and the swearing in ceremony. The first such instance occurred in 1973 following the resignation of "Spiro Agnew, "Richard Nixon's vice president. "Gerald Ford was subsequently nominated by President Nixon and confirmed by Congress. The second occurred 10 months later when Nixon resigned following the "Watergate scandal and Ford assumed the presidency. The resulting vice presidential vacancy was filled by "Nelson Rockefeller. Ford and Rockefeller are the only two people to have served as vice president without having been elected to the office, and Ford remains the only person to have served as both vice president and president without being elected to either office.
|Vice Presidency vacancies|
|Reason||Next Vice President
|March 4, 1789–April 21, 1789||48||Logistical delays as the new Federal Government began operations.||"John Adams, following his inauguration.|
|April 20, 1812–March 4, 1813||318||"George Clinton died.||"Elbridge Gerry, following "election of 1812.|
|November 23, 1814–March 4, 1817||832||"Elbridge Gerry died.||"Daniel D. Tompkins, following "election of 1816.|
|December 28, 1832–March 4, 1833||66||"John C. Calhoun resigned.||"Martin Van Buren, following "election of 1832.|
|April 4, 1841–March 4, 1845||1,430||"John Tyler succeeded to presidency.||"George M. Dallas, following "election of 1844.|
|July 9, 1850–March 4, 1853||969||"Millard Fillmore succeeded to presidency.||"William R. King, following "election of 1852.|
|April 18, 1853–March 4, 1857||1,416||"William R. King died.||"John C. Breckinridge, following "election of 1856.|
|April 15, 1865–March 4, 1869||1,419||"Andrew Johnson succeeded to presidency.||"Schuyler Colfax, following "election of 1868.|
|November 22, 1875–March 4, 1877||468||"Henry Wilson died.||"William A. Wheeler, following "election of 1876.|
|September 19, 1881–March 4, 1885||1,262||"Chester A. Arthur succeeded to presidency.||"Thomas A. Hendricks, following "election of 1884.|
|November 25, 1885–March 4, 1889||1,195||"Thomas A. Hendricks died.||"Levi P. Morton, following "election of 1888.|
|November 21, 1899–March 4, 1901||468||"Garret Hobart died.||"Theodore Roosevelt, following "election of 1900.|
|September 14, 1901–March 4, 1905||1,267||"Theodore Roosevelt succeeded to presidency.||"Charles W. Fairbanks, following "election of 1904.|
|October 30, 1912–March 4, 1913||125||"James S. Sherman died.||"Thomas R. Marshall, following "election of 1912.|
|August 2, 1923–March 4, 1925||580||"Calvin Coolidge succeeded to presidency.||"Charles G. Dawes, following "election of 1924.|
|April 12, 1945–January 20, 1949||1,379||"Harry S. Truman succeeded to presidency.||"Alben W. Barkley, following "election of 1948.|
|November 22, 1963–January 20, 1965||425||"Lyndon B. Johnson succeeded to presidency.||"Hubert Humphrey, following "election of 1964.|
|October 10, 1973–December 6, 1973||57||"Spiro Agnew resigned.||"Gerald Ford, following confirmation by Congress.|
|August 9, 1974–December 19, 1974||132||"Gerald Ford succeeded to presidency.||"Nelson Rockefeller, following confirmation by Congress.|
Growth of the office
|“||My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived.||”|
|— John Adams, to his wife|
For much of its existence, the office of vice president was seen as little more than a minor position. Adams, the first vice president, was the first of many who found the job frustrating and stupefying, writing to his wife "Abigail that "My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived." Many vice presidents lamented the lack of meaningful work in their role. "John Nance Garner, who served as vice president from 1933 to 1941 under President "Franklin D. Roosevelt, claimed that the vice presidency "isn't worth a pitcher of warm piss." "Harry Truman, who also served as vice president under Roosevelt, said that the office was as "useful as a cow's fifth teat."
"Thomas R. Marshall, the 28th vice president, lamented: "Once there were two brothers. One ran away to sea; the other was elected Vice President of the United States. And nothing was heard of either of them again." His successor, "Calvin Coolidge, was so obscure that "Major League Baseball sent him free passes that misspelled his name, and a fire marshal failed to recognize him when Coolidge's Washington residence was evacuated.
When the "Whig Party asked "Daniel Webster to run for the vice presidency on "Zachary Taylor's ticket, he replied "I do not propose to be buried until I am really dead and in my coffin." This was the second time Webster declined the office, which "William Henry Harrison had first offered to him. Ironically, both of the presidents making the offer to Webster died in office, meaning the three-time presidential candidate could have become president if he had accepted either. Since presidents rarely died in office, however, the better preparation for the presidency was considered to be the office of "Secretary of State, in which Webster served under Harrison, Tyler, and later, Taylor's successor, Fillmore.
For many years, the vice president was given few responsibilities. "Garret Hobart, the first vice president under "William McKinley, was one of the very few vice presidents at this time who played an important role in the administration. A close confidant and adviser of the president, Hobart was called "Assistant President." However, until 1919, vice presidents were not included in meetings of the "President's Cabinet. This precedent was broken by President "Woodrow Wilson when he asked "Thomas R. Marshall to preside over Cabinet meetings while Wilson was in France negotiating the "Treaty of Versailles. President "Warren G. Harding also invited his vice president, Calvin Coolidge, to meetings. The next vice president, "Charles G. Dawes, did not seek to attend Cabinet meetings under President Coolidge, declaring that "the precedent might prove injurious to the country." Vice President "Charles Curtis was also precluded from attending by President "Herbert Hoover.
In 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt raised the stature of the office by renewing the practice of inviting the vice president to cabinet meetings, which every president since has maintained. Roosevelt's first vice president, "John Nance Garner, broke with him over the ""court-packing issue, early in his second term, and became Roosevelt's leading critic. At the start of that term, on "January 20, 1937, Garner had been the first Vice President to be sworn into office on the Capitol steps in the same ceremony with the president; a tradition that continues. Prior to that time, vice presidents were traditionally inaugurated at a separate ceremony in the Senate chamber. "Gerald R. Ford and "Nelson A. Rockefeller, who were both appointed to the office under the terms of the 25th amendment, were inaugurated in the House and Senate chambers, respectively.
"Henry Wallace, Roosevelt's Vice President during his third term (1941–1945), was given major responsibilities during World War II. However, after numerous policy disputes between Wallace and other "Roosevelt Administration and Democratic Party officials, he was denied renomination to office at the "1944 Democratic National Convention. "Harry Truman was selected instead. During his 82 day vice presidency, Truman was not informed about any war or post-war plans, including the "Manhattan Project, leading Truman to remark, wryly, that the job of the Vice President was to "go to weddings and funerals." As a result of this experience, Truman, after succeeding to the presidency upon Roosevelt 's death, recognized the need to keep the Vice President informed on national security issues. Congress made the vice president one of four statutory members of the "National Security Council in 1949.
The stature of the Vice-presidency grew again while "Richard Nixon was in office (1953–1961). He attracted the attention of the media and the Republican party, when "Dwight Eisenhower authorized him to preside at "Cabinet meetings in his absence. Nixon was also the first vice president to formally assume temporary control of the executive branch, which he did after Eisenhower suffered a "heart attack on September 24, 1955, "ileitis in June 1956, and a "stroke in November 1957.
Until 1961, vice presidents had their offices on "Capitol Hill, a formal office in the Capitol itself and a working office in the "Russell Senate Office Building. "Lyndon B. Johnson was the first vice president to be given an office in the White House complex, in the "Old Executive Office Building. The former Navy Secretary's office in the OEOB has since been designated the "Ceremonial Office of the Vice President" and is today used for formal events and press interviews. President "Jimmy Carter was the first president to give his vice president, "Walter Mondale, an office in the "West Wing of the White House, which all vice presidents have since retained. Because of their function as Presidents of the Senate, vice presidents still maintain offices and staff members on Capitol Hill.
Though Walter Mondale's tenure was the beginning of the modern day power of the vice presidency, the tenure of "Dick Cheney saw a rapid growth in the office of the vice president. Vice President Cheney held a tremendous amount of power and frequently made policy decisions on his own, without the knowledge of the President. After his tenure, and during the "2008 presidential campaign, both vice presidential candidates, "Sarah Palin and "Joe Biden, stated the office had expanded too much under Cheney's tenure and both claimed they would reduce the role to simply being an adviser to the president.
|This section needs additional citations for "verification. (January 2017) ("Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|"Living former vice presidents|
Four vice presidents have been elected to the presidency while serving as vice president: "John Adams, "Thomas Jefferson, "Martin Van Buren and "George H. W. Bush. Additionally, "John C. Breckinridge, "Richard Nixon, "Hubert Humphrey and "Al Gore were each nominated by their respective parties, but did not succeed the presidents with whom they were elected, though Nixon was elected president eight years later.
Two vice presidents served under different presidents. "George Clinton served under both Thomas Jefferson and "James Madison, while John C. Calhoun served under "John Quincy Adams and "Andrew Jackson. In 1900, "Adlai Stevenson I, who had earlier served as vice president under "Grover Cleveland, ran for another term, this time as "William Jennings Bryan's running mate. "Charles W. Fairbanks, vice president under "Theodore Roosevelt, sought unsuccessfully to return to office as "Charles Evans Hughes' running mate in 1916.
Some former vice presidents have sought other offices after serving as vice president. "Daniel D. Tompkins ran for "Governor of New York in 1820 while serving as vice president under "James Monroe. He lost to "DeWitt Clinton, but was re-elected vice president. "John C. Calhoun resigned as vice president to accept election as "US Senator from South Carolina. "Hannibal Hamlin, "Andrew Johnson, "Alben Barkley and Hubert H. Humphrey were all elected to the Senate after leaving office. "Levi P. Morton, vice president under "Benjamin Harrison, was elected "Governor of New York after leaving office.
Adlai Stevenson I was narrowly defeated for "Governor of Illinois in 1908. Richard Nixon unsuccessfully sought the "governorship of California in 1962, nearly two years after leaving office as vice president and just over six years before becoming president. Walter Mondale ran unsuccessfully for president in "1984, served as U.S. "Ambassador to Japan from 1993 to 1996, and then sought unsuccessfully "to return to the Senate in 2002. "George H. W. Bush won the presidency, and his vice president, "Dan Quayle, sought the Republican nomination in 2000.
Since 1977, former presidents and vice presidents who are elected or re-elected to the Senate are entitled to the largely honorific position of "Deputy President pro tempore. So far, the only former vice president to have held this title is Hubert Humphrey following his return to the Senate. Walter Mondale would have been entitled to the position had his 2002 Senate bid been successful.
Under the terms of an 1886 Senate resolution, all former vice presidents are entitled to a "portrait bust in the Senate wing of the "United States Capitol, commemorating their service as presidents of the Senate. Dick Cheney is the most recent former vice president to be so honored.
Unlike former presidents, who receive a pension automatically regardless of their time in office, former vice presidents must reach pension eligibility by accumulating the appropriate time in federal service. Since 2008, former vice presidents are also entitled to "Secret Service personal protection. Former vice presidents traditionally receive Secret Service protection for up to six months after leaving office, by order of the "Secretary of Homeland Security, though this can be extended if the Secretary believes the level of threat is sufficient.
In 2008, a bill titled the "Former Vice President Protection Act" was passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bush. It provides six-month Secret Service protection by law to a former vice president and family. According to the Department of Homeland Security, protection for former vice president Cheney has been extended numerous times because threats against him have not decreased since his leaving office.
Timeline of vice presidents
This is a graphical timeline listing of the Vice Presidents of the United States.
- "List of Vice Presidents of the United States
- "Acting Vice President of the United States
- "Presiding Officer of the United States Senate
Notes and references
- Staff, LII (12 November 2009). "25th Amendment".
- U.S. Const. art. I, § 3, cl. 4.
- U.S. Const. amend. XXV, § 1.
- U.S. Const. amend. XII, § 1.
- "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Senate.gov. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
- Oleszek, Walter J. CRS7-5700 Super-Majority Votes in the Senate "Congressional Research Service, April 12, 2010.
- "Vice President of the United States (President of the Senate)". senate.gov. United States Senate. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
- Goldstein, Joel K. (1995). "The New Constitutional Vice Presidency". Wake Forest Law Review. Winston Salem, NC: Wake Forest Law Review Association, Inc. 30: 505.
- Reynolds, Glenn Harlan (2007). "Is Dick Cheney Unconstitutional?". Northwestern University Law Review Colloquy. Chicago: Northwestern University School of Law. 102: 110.
- Garvey, Todd (2008). "A Constitutional Anomaly: Safeguarding Confidential National Security Information Within the Enigma That Is the American Vice Presidency". William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal. Williamsburg: Publications Council of the College of William and Mary. 17: 565.
- Subhawong, Aryn (2008). "A Realistic Look at the Vice Presidency: Why Dick Cheney Is An "Entity Within the Executive Branch"". Saint Louis University Law Journal. Saint Louis: Saint Louis University School of Law. 53: 281.
- "Vice President Mike Pence". the "White House. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
- Albert, Richard (2005). "The Evolving Vice Presidency". Temple Law Review. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. 78: 811, at 816–19.
- on "YouTube
- Draper, Robert (July 20, 2016). "How Donald Trump Picked His Running Mate". Nytimes.com. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- "50 U.S.C. § 402
- "20 U.S.C. § 42
- "Senate.gov: VPTies.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "President Dawes," Time Magazine, December 14, 1924.
- "3 U.S.C. § 15
- "St. Petersburg Times, January 7, 1969, p. 6A". News.google.com. January 7, 1969. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
- U.S. Const. art. I, § 3, cl. 6.
- Wikisource:Additional amendments to the United States Constitution#Amendment XII
- See: U.S. Const. art. II, §1, cl. 5; see also, U.S. Const. amend. XII, §4.
- See: Peabody, Bruce G.; Gant, Scott E. (1999). "The Twice and Future President: Constitutional Interstices and the Twenty-Second Amendment". Minnesota Law Review. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Law Review. 83: 565.
- See: Albert, Richard (2005). "The Evolving Vice Presidency". Temple Law Review. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. 78: 811, at 856–59.
- "Nagourney, Adam (September 30, 2008). "Concerns About Palin's Readiness as Big Test Nears". The New York Times. p. A16. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
- The "Veepstakes": Strategic Choice in Presidential Running Mate Selection, by Lee Sigelman and Paul J. Wahlbeck, American Political Science Review, December 1997
- Stratton, Allegra; Nasaw, Daniel (March 11, 2008). "Obama scoffs at Clinton's vice-presidential hint". The Guardian. London.
- "Obama rejects being Clinton's No. 2". CNN. March 11, 2008.
- "Trump throws 2008 Obama ad in Clinton's face". Politico. June 10, 2016.
- Freedland, Jonathan (June 4, 2008). "US elections: Jimmy Carter tells Barack Obama not to pick Hillary Clinton as running mate". The Guardian. London.
- See: "5 U.S.C. § 3331
- "OATHS - Rules of the Senate - United States Senate Committee on Rules and Administration".
- Wikisource:Constitution of the United States of America#Section 1 2
- "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". "National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 30, 2005.
- "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". "National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 30, 2005.
- "RL30804: The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals, L. Paige Whitaker and Thomas H. Neale, January 16, 2001". Ncseonline.org. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Longley, Lawrence D.; Pierce, Neal R. (1999). "The Electoral College Primer 2000". New Haven, CT: Yale University Press: 13.
- "Current salary information". Usgovinfo.about.com. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
- Emily Yoffe (January 3, 2001). "Pension information". Slate.com. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- "Succession: Presidential and Vice Presidential Fast Facts". "CNN. September 26, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
- "Vice President of the United States (President of the Senate)". senate.gov. United States Senate. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
- "John Adams". Retrieved August 9, 2011.
- "John Nance Garner quotes". Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- "Nation: Some Day You'll Be Sitting in That Chair". Time.com. November 29, 1963. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
- "A heartbeat away from the presidency: vice presidential trivia". "Case Western Reserve University. October 4, 2004. Retrieved September 12, 2008.
- Greenberg, David (2007). Calvin Coolidge profile. Macmillan. pp. 40–41. "ISBN "0-8050-6957-7.
- Binkley, Wilfred Ellsworth; "Moos, Malcolm Charles (1949). A Grammar of American Politics: The National Government. New York: "Alfred A. Knopf. p. 265.
- "Garret Hobart". Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Harold C. Relyea (February 13, 2001). "The Vice Presidency: Evolution of the Modern Office, 1933–2001" (PDF). Congressional Research Service.
- "U.S. Senate Web page on Charles G. Dawes, 30th Vice President (1925–1929)". Senate.gov. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- Kenneth T. Walsh (October 3, 2003). "Dick Cheney is the most powerful vice president in history. Is that good?". U.S. News and World Report. Archived from the original on February 5, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- "Full Vice Presidential Debate with Gov. Palin and Sen. Biden". YouTube. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
- "Internet Public Library: FARQs". Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- "LARRY KING LIVE: Interview with Al, Tipper Gore". CNN. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- "Former Vice President Protection Act of 2008". Opencongress.org. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- "President Barack Obama authorizes extended Secret Service guard for former VP Dick Cheney". "Daily News. New York. July 21, 2009.
- Goldstein, Joel K. (1982). The Modern American Vice Presidency. Princeton University Press. "ISBN "0-691-02208-9.
- Tally, Steve (1992). Bland Ambition: From Adams to Quayle—The Cranks, Criminals, Tax Cheats, and Golfers Who Made It to Vice President. Harcourt. "ISBN "0-15-613140-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vice President of the United States.|
- White House website for the Vice President Mike Pence
- Vice-President Elect Chester Arthur on Expectations of VP Shapell Manuscript Foundation
- A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825
|"United States presidential line of succession|
|1st in line||Succeeded by
"Speaker of the House of Representatives