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See also: "List of violent spectator incidents in sports
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Fans of the "Minnesota Golden Gophers riot in the "Dinkytown neighborhood of "Minneapolis after the Gophers won the 2003 "Frozen Four
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Unruly spectator cuffed and led away by Miami-Dade Police during NFL match between Miami Dolphins and Buffalo Bills at Sun Life Stadium, December 24, 2012.
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Miami-Dade Police arrest female spectator during NFL match between Miami Dolphins and Buffalo Bills at Sun Life Stadium, December 24, 2012.

Violence may also be related to nationalism or as an outlet for underlying social tensions. It is often "alcohol-related.

Violence by supporters of sports teams dates back to "Roman times, when supporters of chariot racing teams were frequently involved in major riots. Usually, underlying political and/or theological issues helped fuel riots related to sporting events in the Roman era. The "Nika riots of 532 were especially deadly, with tens of thousands reportedly killed.

In periods when "theatre was considered a form of mass entertainment, there were phenomena of rival fans supporting rival actors or theatrical teams, occasionally leading to violent outbursts having many similarities to present-day violence of sports fans – the "Astor Place Riot in 1849 New York City being a conspicuous example.

The actions of English "football "hooligans and "firms in the 1980s caused English teams to be banned from European competition for six years after the "Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985. Although the level of football-related violence was significantly reduced in England after this event, in the recent "Euro 2004 tournament, "England were publicly warned that any violence by supporters at matches could result in their ejection from the tournament. Many known hooligans were prevented from traveling to the tournament in Portugal. There was a collective sigh of relief from security experts in the USA when England failed to qualify for the "1994 FIFA World Cup. "Alan Rothenberg (chairman of the World Cup organizing committee in the United States in 1994) said:

Notable examples of fan violence[edit]

Athlete violence[edit]

American football[edit]

Association football[edit]

Australian rules football[edit]

Baseball[edit]

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Bench-clearing brawl at "Fenway Park because of "Coco Crisp getting hit by a pitch by "James Shields.

Basketball[edit]

Ice hockey[edit]

Violence in ice hockey Fighting in ice hockey
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A fight between "Shawn Thornton and "Wade Brookbank. Fighting in ice hockey is an established tradition with a long history.

Violence has been a part of "ice hockey since at least the early 1900s. According to the book "Hockey: A People's History, in 1904 alone, four players were killed during hockey games from the frequent brawls and violent stickwork.[45] Fighting in ice hockey is an established tradition of the sport in North America, with a long history involving many levels of amateur and professional play and including some notable individual fights.[46] While officials tolerate fighting during hockey games, they impose a variety of "penalties on players who engage in fights. Unique to North American professional team sports, the "National Hockey League (NHL) and most minor professional leagues in North America do not "eject players outright for fighting[47] but major European and "collegiate hockey leagues do.[48]

The debate over allowing fighting in ice hockey games is ongoing. Despite its potentially negative consequences, such as heavier enforcers (or "heavyweights") knocking each other out, some administrators are not considering eliminating fighting from the game, as some players consider it essential.[49] Additionally, the majority of fans oppose eliminating fights from professional hockey games.[50]

Rugby[edit]

Eye-gouging (rugby union)

Other sports[edit]

  • On 24 August 2008, during the Olympics, "Angel Matos of "Cuba angrily kicked a referee after being told he was disqualified in the bronze medal match. The "World Taekwondo Federation later banned Matos for life, along with his coach.

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • "Morris, Desmond (1981). The Soccer Tribe. Johnathan Cape. "ISBN "978-1-904435-54-9. 
  • Atyeo, Don (1979) Blood & Guts: Violence in Sports, Paddington Press, 0-79-092-0000-5
  • Coakley, Jay (2009). "Violence in Sports". Sports in Society (PDF). McGraw-Hill. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 Sep 2012. Retrieved 2 Sep 2013. 

See also[edit]

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