See more Violence in sports articles on AOD.

Powered by
TTSReader
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia


( => ( => ( => Violence in sports [pageid] => 848317 ) =>

Violence in sports usually refers to violent and often unnecessarily harmful intentional physical acts committed during, or motivated by, a "sports game, often in relation to contact sports such as "American football, "ice hockey, "rugby football, "lacrosse, "association football, "boxing, "mixed martial arts, "wrestling, and "water polo and, when referring to the players themselves, often involving excessively violent or potentially illegal physical contact beyond the normal levels of contact expected while playing the sport. These acts of violence can include intentional attempts to injure a player or coach by another player or coach, but can also include threats of physical harm or actual physical harm sustained by players or coaches by fans or those engaging in the spectating of sports, or threats and acts of violence performed by fans or spectators upon opposing fans or other spectators.

Contents

Causes[edit]

There are two major theories on the cause of violence in sports. One theory holds that humans have an instinct for violence, developed during a time when early human ancestors had to resort to violence and aggressiveness to survive and reproduce. Another theory deals with the sociological aspects of violence in sports, stating that sports are "mock battles" which can become actual battles due to their competitive nature.[1]

Violence by athletes[edit]

Through a "civilizing process", many modern sports have become less tolerant of bloodshed than past versions, although many violent aspects of these sports still remain.[1]

Athletes sometimes resort to violence, in hopes of injuring and intimidating opponents. Such incidents may be part of a strategy developed by coaches or players.

In boxing, unruly or extremely violent behavior by one of the contestants often results in the fighter breaking the rules being penalized with a points reduction, or, in extreme cases, disqualification. Outlawed tactics in boxing include hitting the opponent on the back of the head, under the belly during clinching, and to the back. Other tactics that are outlawed, but less seen, are pushing an opponent extremely hard to the floor, kicking, or hitting repeatedly after the round has ended. Similar actions have also happened in "ice hockey and "Australian Football League matches.

Ritual violence[edit]

High school, college, and even professional sports teams often include "initiation ceremonies (known as "hazing in the USA) as a "rite of passage. A 1999 study by "Alfred University and the "NCAA found that approximately four out of five college US athletes (250,000 per year) experienced hazing.[2] Half were required to take part in alcohol-related initiations, while two-thirds were subjected to humiliation rituals.

Fan violence[edit]

""
""
Fans of the "Minnesota Golden Gophers riot in the "Dinkytown neighborhood of "Minneapolis after the Gophers won the 2003 "Frozen Four
""
""
Unruly spectator cuffed and led away by Miami-Dade Police during NFL match between Miami Dolphins and Buffalo Bills at Sun Life Stadium, December 24, 2012.
""
""
Miami-Dade Police arrest female spectator during NFL match between Miami Dolphins and Buffalo Bills at Sun Life Stadium, December 24, 2012.

Violence may also be related to nationalism or as an outlet for underlying social tensions. It is often "alcohol-related.

Violence by supporters of sports teams dates back to "Roman times, when supporters of chariot racing teams were frequently involved in major riots. Usually, underlying political and/or theological issues helped fuel riots related to sporting events in the Roman era. The "Nika riots of 532 were especially deadly, with tens of thousands reportedly killed.

In periods when "theatre was considered a form of mass entertainment, there were phenomena of rival fans supporting rival actors or theatrical teams, occasionally leading to violent outbursts having many similarities to present-day violence of sports fans – the "Astor Place Riot in 1849 New York City being a conspicuous example.

The actions of English "football "hooligans and "firms in the 1980s caused English teams to be banned from European competition for six years after the "Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985. Although the level of football-related violence was significantly reduced in England after this event, in the recent "Euro 2004 tournament, "England were publicly warned that any violence by supporters at matches could result in their ejection from the tournament. Many known hooligans were prevented from traveling to the tournament in Portugal. There was a collective sigh of relief from security experts in the USA when England failed to qualify for the "1994 FIFA World Cup. "Alan Rothenberg (chairman of the World Cup organizing committee in the United States in 1994) said:

Notable examples of fan violence[edit]

""
""
Damaged vehicle in the aftermath of the 2011 Vancouver Stanley Cup riot

Athlete violence[edit]

American football[edit]

Association football[edit]

Australian rules football[edit]

Baseball[edit]

""
""
Bench-clearing brawl at "Fenway Park because of "Coco Crisp getting hit by a pitch by "James Shields.

Basketball[edit]

Ice hockey[edit]

""
""
A fight between "Shawn Thornton and "Wade Brookbank. Fighting in ice hockey is an established tradition with a long history.

Violence has been a part of "ice hockey since at least the early 1900s. According to the book "Hockey: A People's History, in 1904 alone, four players were killed during hockey games from the frequent brawls and violent stickwork.[46] Fighting in ice hockey is an established tradition of the sport in North America, with a long history involving many levels of amateur and professional play and including some notable individual fights.[47] While officials tolerate fighting during hockey games, they impose a variety of "penalties on players who engage in fights. Unique to North American professional team sports, the "National Hockey League (NHL) and most minor professional leagues in North America do not "eject players outright for fighting[48] but major European and "collegiate hockey leagues do.[49]

The debate over allowing fighting in ice hockey games is ongoing. Despite its potentially negative consequences, such as heavier enforcers (or "heavyweights") knocking each other out, some administrators are not considering eliminating fighting from the game, as some players consider it essential.[50] Additionally, the majority of fans oppose eliminating fights from professional hockey games.[51]

Rugby[edit]

Other sports[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Salamone, Frank A. (2000). Society, Culture, Leisure and Play. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. pp. 273–4. "ISBN "9780761816256. 
  2. ^ "Alfred University : News : NCAA Sports Survey". Retrieved October 8, 2015. 
  3. ^ Woodland, Les (2007), The Yellow Jersey Guide to the Tour de France, Yellow Jersey Press, p.99
  4. ^ "Tour 1904 : mort de son succès". Vélo 101, le site officiel du vélo (in French). Velo101.com. October 30, 2001. Retrieved July 20, 2012. 
  5. ^ Woodland, Les (2003). The Yellow Jersey Companion to the Tour de France. Yellow Jersey Press. p. 264. "ISBN "0-224-063189. 
  6. ^ Van den Bogaart, Ronnie (November 10, 2007). "Col de la République was eerste berg in Tour de France" (in Dutch). Sportgeschiedenis. Retrieved July 23, 2012. 
  7. ^ Prince, Seth (November 22, 2008). "Civil War: 5 moments that fanned the flames of the rivalry". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 7, 2011. 
  8. ^ Celtic 1 Rangers 0 1980 Scottish 'riot' Cup Final. Retrieved October 8, 2015. 
  9. ^ a b Nash, Bruce; Zullo, Allan (1989). Baseball Hall of Shame. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 63–64. "ISBN "978-0-671-68766-3. Retrieved October 13, 2010. 
  10. ^ Montague, James. "Five games that changed the world". CNN. Retrieved May 13, 2011. 
  11. ^ "'I ballooned from size 8 to 18 after I was stabbed by a fan,' says tennis ace Monica Seles". Mail Online. 
  12. ^ Round 10 1996, Essendon vs. St Kilda, Bomber Internet
  13. ^ "Riots after Lakers win NBA title". BBC News. June 20, 2000. Retrieved 2010-05-27. 
  14. ^ Atwell, Glen. AFL: Stephen Silvagni knocked out by Darren Milburn, SportTalk.com.au, May 26, 2007
  15. ^ Crows fan facing one year ban after young Saints fan injured
  16. ^ "Probe launched into Cairns AFL brawl". "ABC News. September 20, 2004. Retrieved November 29, 2011. 
  17. ^ "PM - AFL yet to decide fate of brawling players". Retrieved October 8, 2015. 
  18. ^ "Eight-year ban for ex-Swan". The Sydney Morning Herald. February 24, 2005. 
  19. ^ a b c "On "Night of Shame", Panathinaikos Takes 8th Consecutive Greek Title in Riot Conditions". BallinEurope.com. June 7, 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  20. ^ a b c "Olympiakos fans force Game 4 to be suspended". SportinGreece.com. June 6, 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Brutal Week for Greek Basketball Capped With 80–72 Loss to Spain". BallinEurope.com. September 5, 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  22. ^ "Olympiacos Pulls off 65–61 Upset at PAO, Forced to Flee Rain of Fire". BallinEurope.com. January 13, 2011. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  23. ^ Associated Press (June 27, 2011). "Chaos erupts after River Plate relegated". ESPN. Retrieved June 27, 2011. 
  24. ^ Associated Press (December 28, 2011). "Ajax vs. Alkmaar to start from scratch". ESPN. Retrieved December 29, 2011. 
  25. ^ KC Chiefs website Archived June 19, 2009, at the "Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ "Dyer & Bowyer in amazing punch-up". BBC Sport. April 2, 2005. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  27. ^ Footy's Hall of Shame, 1996.
  28. ^ Hinds, Richard (June 7, 2004). "Heavier blows to come for Hawks, Bombers". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney. 
  29. ^ "Murphy out, Hawks pay heavy price". Melbourne: Essendon Football Club. June 9, 2004. 
  30. ^ "A fine day for the AFL". Melbourne: Essendon Football Club. June 9, 2004. 
  31. ^ "Hawks lose both players and respect". The Age. Melbourne. June 11, 2004. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  32. ^ Rock, Brad (May 28, 2004). "Heated Utah and BYU rivalry started with a brawl in 1895". "Deseret News. p. 1. Retrieved February 22, 2011. 
  33. ^ a b c Rock, Brad (May 28, 2004). "Heated Utah and BYU rivalry started with a brawl in 1895". "Deseret News. p. 2. Retrieved February 22, 2011. 
  34. ^ Merron, Jeff. "Put up your dukes". Page 2. ESPN. Retrieved October 13, 2010. 
  35. ^ Shaughnessy 2005, pp. 144–146
  36. ^ Shaughnessy 2005, p. 145
  37. ^ "A-Rod, Varitek Each Suspended Four Games". NBCSports.com. Associated Press. July 30, 2004. Retrieved May 6, 2012. 
  38. ^ <http://www.10000takes.com/hall_of_shame/>
  39. ^ "Friendly Acropolis tourney ends when bench-clearing brawl forces abandonment of Greece-Serbia". "Fox News. Associated Press. August 19, 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  40. ^ "Police release Nenad Krstic after melee". ESPN. Associated Press. August 21, 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  41. ^ "Coach: Bans 'something unbelievable'". ESPN. August 27, 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  42. ^ "China apologizes for brawl with Brazil". ESPN. Associated Press. October 13, 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-13. 
  43. ^ "PR N° 34 – China sanctioned for mass brawl in Brazil friendly" (Press release). FIBA. December 14, 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  44. ^ O'Neil, Dana (August 19, 2011). "Georgetown, Chinese pro team brawl". ESPN. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  45. ^ Wang, Gene (August 18, 2011). "Georgetown basketball exhibition in China ends in brawl". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  46. ^ Drewery, Laine (Writer and Director), Chong,Wayne (Producer) (2006). Hockey: A People's History, Episode 1 – A simple game, DVD Chapter — From sport to spectacle (DVD). Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 
  47. ^ Bernstein 2006, p. 3
  48. ^ Bernstein 2006, p. 31
  49. ^ NCAA 2004, p. 61
  50. ^ McIntyre 2007
  51. ^ Barrie Examiner 2007
  52. ^ "Legends of Hockey -- NHL Player Search -- Player -- Wayne Maki". Retrieved October 8, 2015. 
  53. ^ Lemieux 2003
  54. ^ CBC 1987
  55. ^ Joyce 2006
  56. ^ BBC (February 10, 2001). "Brawl taints Panthers' victory". BBC. Retrieved 2006-12-29. 
  57. ^ CBC (February 14, 2001). "British league suspends Canadian hockey brawlers". CBC. Retrieved 2007-12-24. 
  58. ^ "League punishes teams over brawl". BBC Sport. February 15, 2001. Retrieved November 29, 2011. 
  59. ^ Maaddi 2004
  60. ^ Lenta.ru (2010). "Матч КХЛ был сорван массовой дракой хоккеистов". lenta.ru. Retrieved 2010-01-09. 
  61. ^ "This is hockey?". KHL.ru. January 9, 2010. 
  62. ^ "Both teams lose". KHL.ru. January 10, 2010. 
  63. ^ Dolan, Damian (15 May 2009). "JPR Williams remembers the call of 99". "The Independent. 
  64. ^ "Boet Erasmus Stadium, Port Elizabeth 13 July 1974". Official Website of the British and Irish Lions. Archived from the original on October 22, 2006. 
  65. ^ Byron, George (14 May 2005). "Recalling those legendary 'Battles of the Boet'". Weekend Post. Archived from the original on August 3, 2009.  External link in |newspaper= ("help)
  66. ^ English, Tom. "Rampant Lions - South Africa 1974". Archived from the original on October 27, 2007.  cites it is a copy an article in "The Sunday Times, 20 May 2001.
  67. ^ Staff (24 November 2002). "Sports File: Caught in Time: Lions in South Africa, 1974". "The Sunday Times. 
  68. ^ NZPA (July 11, 2010). "Rugby: Botha suspended for headbutt". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2011-08-28. 
  69. ^ Marc Hinton (July 11, 2010). "Bakkies Botha cops nine-week ban for head butt". stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 2011-08-28. 

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]

) )