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Würzburg
""Marienberg wuerzburg.jpg
""Fürstbischhöfliche Residenz Würzburg (13778181254).jpg
""Friedensbrücke, Würzburg as seen from Brücke der Deutschen Einheit 20130514 1.jpg
""Dom R1.jpg
Clockwise from top: Marienberg Fortress and Old Bridge, river Main, Old town with cathedral and city hall, Residence
""Coat of arms of Würzburg
Coat of arms
""Würzburg   is located in Germany
Würzburg
Würzburg
Coordinates: 49°47′N 9°56′E / 49.783°N 9.933°E / 49.783; 9.933"Coordinates: 49°47′N 9°56′E / 49.783°N 9.933°E / 49.783; 9.933
Country "Germany
"State "Bavaria
"Admin. region "Lower Franconia
"District "Urban district
Government
 • "Mayor Christian Schuchardt ("CDU)
Area
 • Total 87.63 km2 (33.83 sq mi)
Elevation 177 m (581 ft)
Population (2016-12-31)[1]
 • Total 126,010
 • Density 1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
"Time zone "CET/"CEST (UTC+1/+2)
"Postal codes 97070–97084
"Dialling codes 0931
"Vehicle registration

Würzburg ("/ˈvɜːrtsbɜːrɡ, ˈwɜːrtsbɜːrɡ/;[2] German pronunciation: "[ˈvʏɐ̯tsbʊɐ̯k] (""About this sound listen); "Main-Franconian: Wörtzburch) is a city in the region of "Franconia, northern "Bavaria, Germany. Located on the "Main River, it is the capital of the "Regierungsbezirk of "Lower Franconia. The regional dialect is "East Franconian.

Würzburg lies about equidistant from "Frankfurt am Main and "Nuremberg (each about 120 kilometers or 75 miles away). Although the city of Würzburg is not part of the Landkreis Würzburg, (i.e., "district of Würzburg), it is the seat of the district's administration. The city has a population of around 124,000 people.

Contents

History[edit]

Early and medieval history[edit]

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Impression of the city seal of 1319
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Woodcut depicting Würzburg from the "Nuremberg Chronicle (1493)
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Panorama of Würzburg with castle Marienberg. "Matthäus Merian in Cornelis Danckerts, "Historis", 1642.

A "Bronze Age ("Urnfield culture) "refuge castle stood on the site of the present "Fortress Marienberg. The former "Celtic territory was settled by the "Alamanni in the 4th or 5th century, and by the "Franks in the 6th to 7th. Würzburg was the seat of a "Merovingian duke from about 650. It was Christianized in 686 by "Irish missionaries "Kilian, "Kolonat and "Totnan. The city is mentioned in a donation by Duke "Hedan II to bishop "Willibrord, dated 1 May 704, in castellum Virteburch. The "Ravenna Cosmography lists the city as Uburzis at about the same time.[3] The name is presumably of "Celtic origin, but based on a "folk etymological connection to the German word Würze "herb, spice", the name was "Latinized as Herbipolis in the medieval period.[4]

Beginning in 1237, the city seal depicted the cathedral and a portrait of Saint Kilian, with the inscription SIGILLVM CIVITATIS HERBIPOLENSIS. It shows a banner on a tilted lance, formerly in a blue field, with the banner quarterly argent and gules (1532), later or and gules (1550). This coat of arms replaced the older seal of the city, showing Saint Kilian, from 1570.[5]

The first diocese was founded by "Saint Boniface in 742 when he appointed the first "bishop of Würzburg, "Saint Burkhard. The bishops eventually created a duchy with its center in the city, which extended in the 12th century to Eastern "Franconia. The city was the seat of several "Imperial Diets, including the one of 1180, in which "Henry the Lion was banned from the Empire and his "duchy was handed over to "Otto of Wittelsbach. Massacres of Jews took place in 1147 and 1298.

The first church on the site of the present "Würzburg Cathedral was built as early as 788, and consecrated that same year by "Charlemagne; the current building was constructed from 1040 to 1225 in "Romanesque style. The "University of Würzburg was founded in 1402 and re-founded in 1582. The citizens of the city revolted several times against the prince-bishop.

In 1397, King "Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia had visited the city and promised its people the status of a "free Imperial City. However, the German ruling princes forced him to withdraw these promises. In 1400, the citizenry was decisively defeated by the troops of the bishop in the Schlacht von Bergtheim (de), and the city fell under his control permanently until the dissolution of the fiefdom.[6]:41

Modern history[edit]

The "Würzburg witch trials, which occurred between 1626 and 1631, are one of the largest peace-time mass trials. In Würzburg, under Bishop "Philip Adolf an estimated number between 600 and 900 alleged witches were burnt.[7] In 1631, Swedish King "Gustaf Adolf invaded the town and plundered the castle.

In 1720, the foundations of the "Würzburg Residence were laid. In 1796, the "Battle of Würzburg between "Habsburg Austria and the "First French Republic took place. The city passed to the "Electorate of Bavaria in 1803, but two years later, in the course of the "Napoleonic Wars, it became the seat of the Electorate of Würzburg (until September 1806), the later "Grand Duchy of Würzburg. In 1814, the town became part of the "Kingdom of Bavaria and "a new bishopric was created seven years later, as the former one had been "secularized in 1803 (see also "Reichsdeputationshauptschluss).

In 1817, "Friedrich Koenig and "Andreas Bauer founded Schnellpressenfabrik Koenig & Bauer (the world's first "printing press manufacturer).["citation needed]

In the early 1930s, around 2,000 Jews had lived in Würzburg, which was also a rabbinic center. Between November 1941 and June 1943 Jews from the city were sent to the "Nazi concentration camps in Eastern Europe.[8]

On 16 March 1945, about 90% of the city was destroyed in 17 minutes by fire bombing from 225 British "Lancaster bombers during a "World War II air raid, despite the presence of 40 hospitals and the absence of any major armament producer. Würzburg became a target for its role as a traffic hub and to break the spirit of the population.[6]:19

All of the city's churches, cathedrals, and other monuments were heavily damaged or destroyed. The city center, which mostly dated from medieval times, was totally destroyed in a "firestorm in which 5,000 people perished.

Over the next 20 years, the buildings of historical importance were painstakingly and accurately reconstructed. The citizens who rebuilt the city immediately after the end of the war were mostly women – "Trümmerfrauen ("rubble women") – because the men were either dead or still "prisoners of war. On a relative scale, Würzburg was destroyed to a larger extent than was "Dresden in a firebombing the previous month.

On 3 April 1945, Würzburg was occupied by the U.S. "12th Armored Division and U.S. "42nd Infantry Division in a series of frontal assaults masked by smokescreens. The battle continued until the final Wehrmacht resistance was defeated on 5 April 1945.[9][10]

The "2016 Würzburg train attack took place at the Würzburg-Heidingsfeld railway station on 18 July.

Geography[edit]

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Würzburg with Fortress Marienberg

Würzburg is located on both banks of the river Main in the region of Lower Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. The main body of the town is on the eastern (right) bank of the river. The town is completely enclosed by the Landkreis Würzburg, but is not a part of it.

Würzburg covers an area of 87.6 square-kilometres and lies at an altitude of around 177 metres. [11]

Of the total municipal area, in 2007, building area accounted for 30%, followed by agricultural land (27.9%), forestry/wood (15.5%), green spaces (12.7%), traffic (5.4%), water (1.2%) and others (7.3%).[12]

The centre of Würzburg is surrounded by hills. To the west lies the 266 metre Marienberg and the Nikolausberg (359 m) to the south of it. The Main flows through Würzburg from the south-east to the north-west.

City structure[edit]

Würzburg is divided into 13 "Stadtbezirke which are additionally structured into 25 "boroughs. In the following overview, the boroughs and their numbers are allocated to the 13 municipals.

01 Altstadt

  • Dom (01)
  • Neumünster (02)
  • Peter (03)
  • Innere Pleich (04)
  • Haug (05)
  • Äussere Pleich (06)
  • Rennweg (09)
  • Mainviertel (17)

02 Zellerau

  • Zellerau (18)

03 Dürrbachtal

  • Dürrbachau (07)
  • Unterdürrbach (22)
  • Oberdürrbach (23)

04 Grombühl

  • Grombühl (08)

05 Lindleinsmühle

  • Lindleinsmühle (19)

06 Frauenland

  • Mönchberg (10)
  • Frauenland (11)
  • Keesburg (12)

07 Sanderau

  • Sanderau (13)

08 Heidingsfeld

  • Heidingsfeld (14)

09 Heuchelhof

  • Heuchelhof (20)

10 Steinbachtal

  • Steinbachtal (15)
  • Nikolausberg (16)

11 Versbach

  • Versbach (24)

12 Lengfeld

  • Lengfeld (25)

13 Rottenbauer

  • Rottenbauer (21)

Demographics[edit]

Würzburg had 128,538 inhabitants as of 31 December 2016.

Largest groups of foreign residents
Nationality Population (2018)
 "Turkey 1,118
 "Romania 1,053
 "Russia 944
 "Italy 843
 "Ukraine 778
 "Poland 740
 "China 564
 "United States 401
 "Syria 395
 "Greece 349
 "Austria 348
 "Kosovo 324
 "Bosnia 318
 "Croatia 308
 "Spain 286

Economy[edit]

Würzburg is mainly known as an administrative center. Its largest employers are the "Julius-Maximilians-University and the municipality. The largest private employers are "Brose Fahrzeugteile followed by "Koenig & Bauer, a maker of printing machines. Würzburg is also the capital of the German wine region "Franconia which is famous for its mineralic dry white wines especially from the "Silvaner grape. "Würzburger Hofbräu brewery also locally produces a well-known pilsner beer.

Würzburg is home of the oldest Pizzeria in Germany. Nick di Camillo opened his restaurant named Bier- und Speisewirtschaft Capri on 24 March 1952.[13] Mr Camillo received the honor of the "Italian Order of Merit.

In 2015 (latest data available) the "GDP per inhabitant was €59,478. This places the district 12th out of 96 districts (rural and urban) in Bavaria (overall average: €42,950).[14]

Military[edit]

Following World War II, Würzburg was host to the U.S. Army's "1st and "3rd Infantry Divisions as well as an army hospital and various other U.S. military units that maintained a presence in Germany. The last troops were withdrawn from Würzburg in 2008, thus concluding more than 60 years of U.S. presence there.

Arts and culture[edit]

Notable artists who lived in Würzburg include poet "Walther von der Vogelweide (12th and 13th centuries), philosopher "Albertus Magnus and painter "Mathias Grünewald. Sculptor "Tilman Riemenschneider (1460–1531) served as mayor and participated in the "German Peasants' War.

Some of the city's "100 churches" survived intact. In style they range from "Romanesque ("Würzburg Cathedral), "Gothic ("Marienkapelle), "Renaissance (Neubaukirche (de)), "Baroque (Stift Haug Kirche (de)) to modern (St. Andreas).

Major festivals include the Africa Festival in May, the "Mozart Festival in June/July and the Kiliani Volksfest in mid-July.

Main sights[edit]

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Residence (front view).
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Marienberg Fortress
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Käppele
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Juliusspital
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Falkenhaus

Museums and galleries[edit]

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Kulturspeicher at night.
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"Black-figure "Etruscan "amphora in the Martin-von-Wagner-Museum.

Sports[edit]

Basketball player "Dirk Nowitzki grew up in Würzburg. Nowitzki and numerous other German national team players started their careers at the local "Baskets Würzburg club that plays in the "Basketball Bundesliga as of 2016. In the past, the club played at international competitions such as the "Eurocup.

Würzburg is also home to the "football teams "Würzburger Kickers playing in the "3. Liga and "Würzburger FV playing in the "Fußball-Bayernliga.

SV Würzburg 05 is a swimming and water polo club, active in the "German Water Polo League.

Governance[edit]

Würzburg is the administrative seat of the "Regierungsbezirk "Lower Franconia. The administration of the Landkreis Würzburg (district) is also located in the town.

Mayor[edit]

Since April 2014, the mayor of Würzburg has been Christian Schuchardt (de) ("CDU).

Town twinning[edit]

Würzburg is "twinned with:

  • "Spain "Salamanca, Spain, since 1980
  • "Germany "Suhl, Germany, since 1988
  • "Sweden "Umeå, Sweden, since 1992
  • "Republic of Ireland "Bray, Ireland, since 2000
  • "Czech Republic "Trutnov, Czech Republic since 2008

Associated:

Education and research[edit]

Würzburg has several internationally recognized institutions in science and research:

University[edit]

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Alte Universität, the old "Renaissance building of Würzburg University

The "University of Würzburg (official name Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg) was founded in 1402 and is one of the oldest universities in Germany.

Academic disciplines are "astronomy, "biology, "Catholic theology, "chemistry, "computer science, "culture, "economics, "educational and "social sciences, "geography, "history, "languages and "linguistics, "law, "literature, "mathematics, "medicine ("human medicine, "dentistry and "biomedicine), "pharmacy, "philosophy, "physics, "political science, "psychology and "sociology.

Today, the ten faculties are spread throughout the city. The university currently enrolls approximately 29,000 students, out of which more than 1,000 come from other countries.

University of Applied Science[edit]

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"University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt main building in the city centre

The "University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt was founded in 1971 as an "institute of technology with departments in Würzburg and "Schweinfurt. Academic disciplines are "architecture, "business economics, "business informatics, "civil engineering, "computational engineering, "computer science, "electrical engineering, "engineering management, "geodesy, "graphic design, "logistics, "mechanical engineering, "media, "nursing theory, "plastics engineering, "social work.

With nearly 8,000 students it is the second largest university of applied science in Franconia.

Conservatory[edit]

The Conservatory of Würzburg is an institution with a long tradition as well as an impressive success story of more than 200 years. It was founded in 1797 as Collegium musicum academicum and is Germany’s oldest conservatory. Nowadays it is known as "University of Music Würzburg. After the commutation from conservatory to university of music in the early 1970s, science and research were added to complement music education.

Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research[edit]

The "Fraunhofer ISC" in Würzburg is part of the "Fraunhofer Society, Europe’s largest application-oriented research organization. It develops materials for tomorrow’s products, offering cooperation to small and medium-sized enterprises and to large-scale industrial companies.

Media[edit]

Würzburg is home to the daily newspaper Main-Post (de). Radio stations like Antenne Bayern (de) and state broadcaster "Bayerischer Rundfunk have local studios. The latter also maintains a large broadcasting station at Frankenwarte (de) on the Nikolausberg. The private stations Radio Gong (de) and Radio Charivari (de) are based in Würzburg. The TV branch of Bayerischer Rundfunk has its Studio Mainfranken in the town. TV touring (de) is a local private TV station.[17]

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Roads[edit]

Due to its central position Würzburg is an important traffic hub. Here is the interchange of "Autobahn highways "A3 ("Cologne – "FrankfurtWürzburg – "Nuremberg) and "A7 ("Hamburg – "Hanover – "KasselWürzburg – "Ulm) as well as the start of "A81 (Würzburg – "Heilbronn – "Stuttgart). Furthermore, "Bundesstraße highways "B8, B13, B19 and "B27 pass through the city.

Rail[edit]

The city's "main station is a central hub for long-distance and regional services. Würzburg lies at the southern end of the "Hanover-Würzburg high-speed rail line and offers with "InterCityExpress and "InterCity frequent connections to cities such as Cologne, Frankfurt, Hanover, Hamburg, "Munich, Nuremberg and "Vienna. In addition to main station there are the two regional stations Würzburg-South and Würzburg Zell.

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Würzburg Main station
Long distance Route
ICE
(Linie 25)
  "Munich – "NurembergWürzburg – "Kassel – "Hanover – "Hamburg
Munich – "AugsburgWürzburg – Kassel – Hanover – Hamburg / – "Bremen
ICE
(Linie 31)
  "Vienna – "Linz – "Passau – Nuremberg – Würzburg – Frankfurt (Main) – "Mainz – "Koblenz – Cologne – "Wuppertal – "Hagen – "Dortmund
ICE
(Linie 41)
  Munich – Nuremberg – Würzburg – "Frankfurt (Main) – "Cologne – "Düsseldorf – "Essen
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High-speed rail line Würzburg – Hanover crossing the river Main north of Würzburg
regional Route
Regional-Express   Würzburg – "Kitzingen – "Neustadt (Aisch) – "Fürth – Nuremberg
Regional-Express   Würzburg – "Aschaffenburg – "Hanau – Frankfurt (Main)
Regional-Express   Würzburg – "Osterburken – "Heilbronn – "Ludwigsburg – "Stuttgart
Regional-Express   Würzburg – "Schweinfurt – "Bamberg – "Lichtenfels – "Hof/–"Bayreuth
Regional-Express   Würzburg – Bamberg – "Erlangen – Fürth – Nuremberg
Regional-Express   Würzburg – "Schweinfurt – "Bad Kissingen / – "Münnerstadt – "Bad Neustadt – "Mellrichstadt – "Meiningen – "Suhl – "Arnstadt – "Erfurt
Regional train   "Schlüchtern – "Jossa – "Gemünden (Main)Würzburg – "Schweinfurt – Bamberg
Regional train   "KarlstadtWürzburg– "Steinach – "Ansbach – "Treuchtlingen
Regional train   Würzburg – Kitzingen
Regional train   Würzburg – "Bad Mergentheim – "Weikersheim – "Crailsheim

Trams/Trains[edit]

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Würzburg tram crosses the river Main on the Löwenbrücke

Würzburg has a tram network of five lines with a length of 19.7 kilometres (12.2 miles).

Line Route Time Stops
1 Grombühl – Sanderau 20 minutes 20
2 Hauptbahnhof (Main station) – Zellerau 14 minutes 11
3 Hauptbahnhof (Main Station) – Heuchelhof 27 minutes 20
4 Sanderau – Zellerau 23 min. 18
5 Grombühl – Rottenbauer 39 minutes 31

The proposed Line 6 from Hauptbahnhof (Main Station) to Hubland university campus via Residenz is scheduled to be completed after 2018.

Buses[edit]

27 bus lines connect several parts of the city and the inner suburbs. 25 bus lines connect the "Landkreis Würzburg to the city.

Port[edit]

The "Main river flows into the "Rhine and is connected to the "Danube via the "Rhine-Main-Danube Canal. This makes it part of a trans-European waterway connecting the "North Sea to the "Black Sea.

Bicycle[edit]

Designated bicycle paths are located throughout the city and the "Main-Radweg long-distance bicycle trail passes through the old town.

Utilities[edit]

The local public utility is Würzburger Versorgungs- und Verkehrs-GmbH (de) supplying power, natural gas and water as well as public transportation and parking services. It also owns a majority stake in the port and runs local garbage collection/recycling. Heizkraftwerk Würzburg (de) is owned by the utility.

Health care[edit]

Universitätsklinikum Würzburg (de) provides health care services, with over 5,300 employees and over 1,400 hospital beds. Juliusspital also offers hospital services with 342 beds.

Notable people[edit]

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See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". "Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). January 2018. 
  2. ^ J. C. Wells. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, see
  3. ^ Norbert Wagner, 'Uburzis-Wirziburg "Würzburg"'
  4. ^ Heinz Willner, Der Name Würzburg, Frankenland 1/1999.
  5. ^ Stephanie Heyl, Stadt Würzburg (Haus der Bayerischen Geschichte). c.f. "Siebmachers Wappenbuch (1605), plate 9.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dettelbacher, Werner (1974). Franken - Kunst, Geschichte und Landschaft (German). Dumont Verlag. "ISBN "3-7701-0746-2. 
  7. ^ Wolfgang Behringer, Witchcraft in Bavaria: Popular Magik, Religious Zealotry, and Reason of State in Early Modern Europe, (Cambridge University Press, 1997. Much info given on this in footnote 38.
  8. ^ The Story of the Jewish Community in Würzburg an online exhibition by "Yad Vashem
  9. ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 65, 129.
  10. ^ Seite 777, see also Chapter XVIII
  11. ^ http://www.wuerzburg.de/de/buerger/statistikstadtforschung/verlinkung-statistik/stadtgebietflaechennutzungklima/32319.Stadtgebiet_Flaechennutzung_Klima.html
  12. ^ http://www.wuerzburg.de/media/www.wuerzburg.de/org/med_5493/402237_flaechenaufteilung_stadtgebiet.pdf
  13. ^ https://www.welt.de/regionales/muenchen/article13946943/GIs-rissen-sich-um-die-erste-Pizza-in-Deutschland.html
  14. ^ "VGR der Länder, Kreisergebnisse für Deutschland - Bruttoinlandsprodukt, Bruttowertschöpfung in den kreisfreien Städten und Landkreisen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2000 bis 2015 (German)". Statistische Ämter der Länder und des Bundes. Retrieved 1 February 2018. 
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  16. ^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 2013-12-26. 
  17. ^ http://www.wuerzburg.de/media/www.wuerzburg.de/org/med_1302/13683_medien_in_unterfranken_2014.pdf

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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