This article needs additional citations for "verification. (January 2014) ("Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Wade–Giles ("/ /), sometimes abbreviated Wade,["citation needed] is a "Romanization system for "Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by "Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with "Herbert A. Giles's "Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892.
Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the "Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the "Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In "mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the "Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though "Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life. Additionally, its usage can be seen in the common English names of certain individuals and locations such as "Chiang Ching-kuo.
Wade–Giles was developed by "Thomas Francis Wade, a scholar of Chinese and a British ambassador in China who was the first professor of Chinese at "Cambridge University. Wade published in 1867 the first textbook on the "Beijing dialect of "Mandarin in English, Yü-yen Tzŭ-erh Chi (traditional: 語言自邇集; simplified: 语言自迩集), which became the basis for the Romanization system later known as Wade–Giles. The system, designed to transcribe Chinese terms for Chinese specialists, was further refined in 1912 by "Herbert Allen Giles, a British diplomat in China and his son, "Lionel Giles,["citation needed] a curator at the British Museum.
"Taiwan has used Wade–Giles for decades as the "de facto standard, co-existing with several official but obscure "Romanizations in succession, namely, "Gwoyeu Romatzyh (1928), "Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (1986), and "Tongyong Pinyin (2000). With the election of the "Kuomintang party in Taiwan in 2008, Taiwan officially switched to "Hanyu Pinyin. However, many people in Taiwan, both native and overseas, use or transcribe their legal names in the Wade–Giles system, as well as the other aforementioned systems.
The tables below show the Wade–Giles representation of each "Chinese sound (in bold type), together with the corresponding "IPA phonetic symbol (in square brackets), and equivalent representations in "Zhùyīn Fúhào (Bōpōmōfō) and "Hànyǔ Pīnyīn.
Instead of ts, tsʻ and s, Wade–Giles writes tz, tzʻ and ss before ŭ (see "below).
Wade–Giles writes -uei after kʻ and k, otherwise -ui: kʻuei, kuei, hui, shui, chʻui.
It writes [-ɤ] as -o after kʻ, k and h, otherwise -ê: kʻo, ko, ho, shê, chʻê. When [ɤ] forms a syllable on its own, it is written ê or o depending on the character.
Wade–Giles writes [-wo] as -uo after kʻ, k, h and sh, otherwise -o: kʻuo, kuo, huo, shuo, chʻo.
For -ih and -ŭ, see "below.
Giles's "A Chinese-English Dictionary also includes the syllables chio, chʻio, hsio, yo, which are now pronounced like chüeh, chʻüeh, hsüeh, yüeh.
Wade–Giles writes the syllable [i] as i or yi depending on the character.
A feature of the Wade–Giles system is the representation of the "unaspirated-aspirated "stop consonant pairs using left "apostrophes: p, pʻ, t, tʻ, k, kʻ, ch, chʻ. The use of apostrophes preserves b, d, g, and j for the romanization of "Chinese varieties containing "voiced consonants, such as "Shanghainese (which has a full set of voiced consonants) and "Min Nan (Hō-ló-oē) whose century-old "Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ, often called Missionary Romanization) is similar to Wade–Giles. POJ, "Legge romanization, "Simplified Wade, and "EFEO Chinese transcription use the letter ⟨h⟩ instead of an apostrophe to indicate aspiration (this is similar to the superscript ʰ used in "IPA since the "revisions of the 1970s). The convention of an apostrophe or ⟨h⟩ to denote aspiration is also found in romanizations of other Asian languages, such as "McCune–Reischauer for "Korean and "ISO 11940 for "Thai.
People unfamiliar with Wade–Giles often ignore the apostrophes, sometimes omitting them when copying texts, unaware that they represent vital information. Hànyǔ Pīnyīn addresses this issue by employing the Latin letters customarily used for voiced stops, unneeded in Mandarin, to represent the unaspirated stops: b, p, d, t, g, k, j, q, zh, ch.
Partly because of the popular omission of the apostrophe, the four sounds represented in Hànyǔ Pīnyīn by j, q, zh, and ch often all become ch, including in many proper names. However, if the apostrophes are kept, the system reveals a symmetry that leaves no overlap:
Wade–Giles shows precisions not found in other major Romanizations in regard to the rendering of the two types of "syllabic consonant ("simplified Chinese: 空韵; "traditional Chinese: 空韻; "pinyin: kōngyùn):
Final o in Wade–Giles has two pronunciations in modern Mandarin: [wo] and [ɤ].
What is pronounced today as a "close-mid back unrounded vowel [ɤ] is written usually as ê, but sometimes as o, depending on historical pronunciation (at the time Wade–Giles was developed). Specifically, after velar initials k, kʻ and h (and a historical ng, which had been dropped by the time Wade–Giles was developed), o is used; for example, "哥" is ko1 (Pīnyīn gē) and "刻" is kʻo4 (Pīnyīn kè). By modern Mandarin, o after velars (and what used to be ng) have shifted to [ɤ], thus they are written as ge, ke, he and e in Pīnyīn. When [ɤ] forms a syllable on its own, Wade–Giles writes ê or o depending on the character. In all other circumstances, it writes ê.
What is pronounced today as [wo] is usually written as o in Wade–Giles, except for wo, shuo (e.g. "說" shuo1) and the three syllables of kuo, kʻuo, and huo (as in 過, 霍, etc.), which contrast with ko, kʻo, and ho that correspond to Pīnyīn ge, ke, and he. This is because characters like 羅, 多, etc. (Wade–Giles: lo2, to1; Pīnyīn: luó, duō) did not originally carry the medial [w]. By modern Mandarin, the phonemic distinction between o and -uo/wo has been lost (except in interjections when used alone), and the medial [w] is added in front of -o, creating the modern [wo].
Note that Zhùyīn and Pīnyīn write [wo] as ㄛ -o after ㄅ b, ㄆ p, ㄇ m and ㄈ f, and as ㄨㄛ -uo after all other initials.
"Tones are indicated in Wade–Giles using superscript numbers (1–4) placed after the syllable. This contrasts with the use of diacritics to represent the tones in Pīnyīn. For example, the Pīnyīn qiàn (fourth tone) has the Wade–Giles equivalent chʻien4.
Wade–Giles uses "hyphens to separate all syllables within a word (whereas Pīnyīn separates syllables only in specially defined cases, using hyphens or right apostrophes as appropriate).
If a syllable is not the first in a word, its first letter is not "capitalized, even if it is part of a "proper noun. The use of apostrophes, hyphens, and capitalization is frequently not observed in place names and personal names. For example, the majority of overseas "Taiwanese write their "given names like "Tai Lun" or "Tai-Lun", whereas the Wade–Giles is actually "Tai-lun". (See also "Chinese name.)
Note: In Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, the so-called neutral tone is written leaving the syllable with no diacritic mark at all. In Tongyòng Pinyin, a ring is written over the vowel.
Due to the system's use of an apostrophe to distinguish "aspirated and unaspirated consonants, such as in pʻa and pa respectively, rather than using separate letters like in Pīnyīn and many other Romanizations, such as in pa and ba respectively, many people have omitted the apostrophe in transcribing Chinese words and names, assuming that it was an optional diacritic.
There are several adaptations of Wade–Giles.