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For further information on the circulating commemorative quarters, half dollars and dollars struck in 1975–1976, see "United States Bicentennial coinage.

In 1964, there was a severe shortage of coins.[28] Silver prices were rising, and the public responded by hoarding not only the wildly popular new coin, the "Kennedy half dollar, but the other denominations, including the non-silver cent and nickel.[29] Hopeful that issuing more 1964-dated coins would counter the speculation in them, the Treasury obtained Congressional authorization to continue striking 1964-dated coins into 1965.[30]

The Mint's production of coins rapidly depleted the Treasury's stock of silver. Prices for the metal were rising to such an extent that, by early June 1965, a dollar in silver coin contained 93.3 cents' worth of it at market prices. On June 3, 1965, President "Lyndon Johnson announced plans to eliminate silver from the dime and quarter in favor of a clad composition, with layers of copper-nickel on each side of a layer of pure copper. The half dollar was changed from 90% silver to 40%.[31] Congress passed the "Coinage Act of 1965 in July, under which the Mint transitioned from striking 1964-dated silver quarters to striking 1965-dated clad quarters.[32] Beginning on August 1, 1966, the Mint began to strike 1966-dated pieces, and thereafter it resumed the normal practice of striking the current year's date on each piece.[33]

The new clad quarters were struck without "mint mark in 1965–1967, regardless of the mint of origin. Beginning in 1968, mint marks were restored. The San Francisco Mint had reopened, but from 1968, it struck quarters only for collectors, for the most part "proof coins.[34] The Mint adjusted both sides of the coin for the initiation of clad coinage, lowering the relief (the modified reverse design exists on some 1964-dated silver quarters). The obverse was slightly changed in 1974, with some details sharpened.[35] Mint marks on post-1965 pieces are found on the lower right of the obverse, to the right of Washington's neck.[36]

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Jack L. Ahr's drummer design was struck for the "United States Bicentennial.

In January 1973, Representative "Richard C. White introduced legislation for commemorative dollars and half dollars for the 1976 "United States Bicentennial.[37] On June 6, Mint Director "Mary Brooks testified before a congressional committee, and responding to concerns that only the two least-popular denominations would be changed, agreed to support the temporary redesign of the quarter as well.[38] On October 18, 1973, President "Richard Nixon signed legislation mandating a temporary redesign of the three denominations for all coins issued after July 4, 1975 and struck before January 1, 1977. These pieces would bear the double date 1776–1976. In addition to circulation pieces, Congress mandated that 45 million Bicentennial coins be struck in 40% silver.[39] Fearful of creating low-mintage pieces which might be hoarded as the cent recently had been, thus creating a shortage of quarters, in December 1974 the Mint obtained congressional approval to continue striking 1974-dated quarters, half dollars and dollars until Bicentennial coinage began. Accordingly, there are no 1975-dated quarters.[40][41][42] Almost two billion Bicentennial quarters were struck,[43] as the Mint sought to assure that there would be plenty of souvenirs of the anniversary.[44] The Mint sold the silver sets, in both uncirculated and proof, for more than a decade before ending sales at the end of 1986.[45] Jack L. Ahr's colonial drummer, which had appeared on the Bicentennial quarter, was replaced after 1976 by Flanagan's original reverse.[34]

Beginning in 1976, and continuing over the following twenty years, Mint engravers modified the design a number of times.[46] The "Philadelphia Mint's mint mark "P" was used beginning in 1980. Coins dated 1982 and 1983, both from Philadelphia and Denver, command a large premium over face value when found in near-pristine condition.[47] Beginning in 1992, the Mint began selling silver proof sets, including a quarter struck in .900 silver; this has continued to the present day.[48] Although President "George H.W. Bush signed authorizing legislation for these pieces in 1990, coinage did not begin until 1992 due to difficulty in obtaining sufficient coinage blanks in .900 silver.[49]

Commemorative (1999–present)[edit]

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"New Jersey's 1999 entry in the State Quarters series
50 State Quarters, "District of Columbia and United States Territories Quarters, and "America the Beautiful Quarters

The Mint traces the origins of the "50 State Quarters program to a congressional hearing in June 1995, at which Mint Director "Philip N. Diehl, as well as prominent numismatists, urged Congress to pass legislation allowing a series of circulating commemorative coins similar to the "quarters Canada had recently struck for its provinces. In response, Congress passed the United States Commemorative Coins Act of 1996, which was signed by President "Bill Clinton on October 20, 1996. The act directed the Mint to study whether a series of commemorative quarters would be successful.[50] The Mint duly studied the matter, and reported favorably. Although the act had given "Treasury Secretary "Robert Rubin the authority to carry out the report by selecting new coin designs, Secretary Rubin preferred to await congressional action. The resulting 50 States Commemorative Coin Program Act was signed by President Clinton on December 1, 1997. Under the act, each of the fifty states would be honored with a new quarter, to be issued five a year beginning in 1999, with the sequence of issuance determined by the order the states had entered the Union. The act allowed the Secretary to determine the position of the required legends, such as "IN GOD WE TRUST" on the coin: To accommodate a large design on the reverse, "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" and "QUARTER DOLLAR" were moved to the obverse, and the bust of Washington shrunken slightly.[51] A state's design would be selected by the Treasury Secretary on the recommendation of the state's governor.[52]

As part of the series, the Mint sold collector's versions in proof, including pieces struck in .900 silver.[53] The Mint also sold a large number of numismatic items, including rolls and bags of coins, collector's maps, and other items designed to encourage coin collecting among the general public.[54] The Mint estimated that the government profited by $3 billion through "seignorage on coins saved by the public and through other revenues, over what it would otherwise have earned.[55]

Legislation to extend the program to the "District of Columbia and "the territories had been four times passed by the "House of Representatives, but the "Senate had failed to consider it each time. Provisions authorizing such a program were inserted into an urgent appropriations bill, and passed in December 2007.[56] The resultant 2009 District of Columbia and U.S. Territories Quarters Program maintained the Washington obverse but on the reverse displayed designs in honor of the District of Columbia, "Puerto Rico, "Guam, "American Samoa, "Virgin Islands, and the "Northern Mariana Islands, all minted in 2009.[57]

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This quarter, honoring New York's "Saratoga National Historic Park, was being struck in late 2015.

In 2008, Congress passed the America's Beautiful National Parks Quarter Dollar Coin Act. This legislation called for 56 coins, one for each state or other jurisdiction, to be issued five per year beginning in 2010 and concluding in 2021. Each coin features a "National Park Service site, one to a jurisdiction. Flanagan's head of Washington was restored to bring out detail.[58] In addition to the circulating pieces and collector's versions, "bullion pieces with 5 troy ounces (155 g) of silver are being struck with the quarter's design.[59]

In February 2012, President "Barack Obama included in his "2013 budget a provision, inserted at the behest of Mint officials, which if enacted would mandate that the silver dimes, quarters, and half dollars produced for collectors be a minimum of .900 silver, rather than requiring that exact fineness. If the provision becomes law, the Mint intends to strike the collector's coins from .999 silver. Alloy which is .900 fine is now being used by the Mint only for these pieces; .999 silver, which is also used for bullion pieces, would be cheaper for the Mint to produce. Customers would pay an additional charge to reflect the extra silver content.[49] In May of that year, the Mint announced plans to strike the first circulation-quality quarters at the San Francisco Mint since 1954, to be sold only at a premium in bags and rolls. All five 2012 designs were struck, the first circulation-quality coins struck at San Francisco since 1983 (when "Lincoln cents were struck without mint mark), and the first with the S mint mark since the "Anthony dollar in 1981 (struck for mint sets only).[60]

Number minted[edit]

Washington quarter mintage figures

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bowers 2006, p. 30.
  2. ^ Bowers 2006, p. 31.
  3. ^ Bowers 2006, pp. 31–32.
  4. ^ a b Bowers 2006, p. 32.
  5. ^ Taxay 1983, p. 360.
  6. ^ Bowers 2006, p. 33.
  7. ^ a b c Vermeule 1971, p. 178.
  8. ^ Taxay 1983, pp. 360–362.
  9. ^ a b Bowers 2006, p. 35.
  10. ^ Taxay 1983, p. 363.
  11. ^ a b c Bowers 2006, p. 36.
  12. ^ Breen 1988, p. 365.
  13. ^ Guth & Garrett 2005, p. 79.
  14. ^ Cadou 2006, p. 120.
  15. ^ Vermeule 1971, pp. 177–178.
  16. ^ a b Bowers 2006, p. 39.
  17. ^ Vermeule 1971, p. 179.
  18. ^ Vermeule 1971, p. 180.
  19. ^ San Jose News 1932-07-09.
  20. ^ The Reading Eagle 1932-07-10.
  21. ^ a b c Bowers 2006, p. 40.
  22. ^ The Star and Sentinel 1932-08-06.
  23. ^ The New York Times 1932-08-21.
  24. ^ Breen 1988, p. 366.
  25. ^ Bowers 2006, pp. 46–48.
  26. ^ Breen 1988, p. 367.
  27. ^ Yeoman 2014, pp. 171–173.
  28. ^ Bowers 2006, p. 41.
  29. ^ Bardes 1964-11-22.
  30. ^ Bardes 1964-09-13.
  31. ^ Dale 1965-06-04.
  32. ^ The New York Times 1965-07-15.
  33. ^ Bardes 1966-07-17.
  34. ^ a b Bowers 2006, pp. 42–45.
  35. ^ Bowers 2006, pp. 49–50.
  36. ^ Yeoman 2014, p. 173.
  37. ^ Coin World Almanac 1977, p. 419.
  38. ^ Coin World Almanac 1977, pp. 421–422.
  39. ^ Coin World Almanac 1977, p. 422.
  40. ^ Breen 1988, p. 421.
  41. ^ Coin World Almanac 1977, p. 51.
  42. ^ Ganz 1976, pp. 66–68.
  43. ^ Yeoman 2014, p. 228.
  44. ^ Reiter 1979-07-08.
  45. ^ Webster 1986-10-26.
  46. ^ Bowers 2006, pp. 50–51.
  47. ^ Yeoman 2014, pp. 178.
  48. ^ Yeoman 2014, pp. 349–351.
  49. ^ a b Gilkes 2012-03-12.
  50. ^ United States Mint 2009, p. 4.
  51. ^ United States Mint 2009, p. 6.
  52. ^ United States Mint 2009, p. 14.
  53. ^ United States Mint 2009, p. 11.
  54. ^ United States Mint 2009, p. 12.
  55. ^ United States Mint 2009, p. 13.
  56. ^ Ganz 2007-12-20.
  57. ^ United States Mint, DC & Territories.
  58. ^ United States Mint 2010-03-24.
  59. ^ Numismatic News 2009-09-09.
  60. ^ Gilkes 2012-05-21.

Books and reports

News and other sources

External links[edit]

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