Mariensäule column in Wiener Neustadt
|• "Mayor||Klaus Schneeberger ("ÖVP)|
|• Total||60.93 km2 (23.53 sq mi)|
|Elevation||265 m (869 ft)|
|Population (1 January 2016)|
|• Density||720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)|
|"Time zone||"CET ("UTC+1)|
|• Summer ("DST)||"CEST ("UTC+2)|
Wiener Neustadt (German pronunciation: "[ˈviːnɐ ˈnɔʏʃtat]) is a city located south of "Vienna, in the state of "Lower Austria, in north-east "Austria. It is a self-governed city and the seat of the district administration of "Wiener Neustadt-Land District. The city is the site of one of the world's oldest military academies, the "Theresian Military Academy, which was established by "Empress Maria Theresa of Austria in 1752 to train officers for the Austrian army.
The area once belonged to the County of "Pitten, which had been inherited by Margrave "Ottokar III of Styria in 1158. After the dynasty of the "Otakars became extinct with the death of his son "Ottokar IV, the "Duchy of Styria passed to the "Austrian "House of Babenberg according to the "Georgenberg Pact. Duke "Leopold V of Austria established the town in 1194 and financed the construction of a fortress close to the "Hungarian border with the ransom paid for the English king "Richard the Lionheart, whom he had previously captured and held as a hostage at "Dürnstein Castle. In 1241, a small "Mongol squadron raided Neustadt during the "Mongol invasion of Europe but was later repulsed by Duke Friederich and his knights.
Wiener Neustadt, meaning more or less New Vienna ("Viennese Newtown"), gained important privileges given to the city in order to enable it to prosper. It remained a part of Styria, which after the 1278 "Battle on the Marchfeld fell to the "House of Habsburg and in 1379 became a constituent duchy of "Inner Austria. In the 15th century, Wiener Neustadt experienced a population boom, when Emperor "Frederick III of Habsburg took up a residence here and established the "Diocese of Wiener Neustadt in 1469. His wife, "Eleanor of Portugal, died in Wiener Neustadt in 1467. The Wappenwand (coat-of-arms wall) at the local castle displays the coats of arms of his possessions in the middle. His son "Maximilian I maintained his court in Wiener Neustadt and is buried here at St. George's Cathedral. The town then also had a significant "Jewish commune with Rabbi "Israel Isserlin as its most notable member, until all Jews were expelled by order of Emperor Maximilian I in 1496.
Habsburg's long-time rival King "Matthias Corvinus of Hungary conquered the city in August 1487 after having laid "siege to it for two years. According to legend he dedicated the magnificent Corvinus Cup to the inhabitants after his victory. Maximilian I managed to reconquer his native city in 1490. During the 16th century, Wiener Neustadt lost its status as imperial residence and much of its importance. However, it still fulfilled its function as bulwark against the "Turks and the "Kuruc.
In 1751 the city received greater attention when Empress "Maria Theresa of Austria decided to dedicate the First Military Academy, worldwide, inside the imperial castle. In 1752, the "Theresian Military Academy took up its operations, which have continued to this day with only a few interruptions ("Erwin Rommel was appointed commandant after the Austrian "Anschluss in 1938). In 1768, Wiener Neustadt was destroyed by an earthquake that damaged the castle, which was rebuilt using plans made by the architect "Nicolò Pacassi. In 1785, Emperor "Joseph II of Habsburg transferred the see of the Wiener Neustadt diocese to "Sankt Pölten.
In the 19th century the city became an industrial town, especially after the opening of the "Austrian Southern Railway in 1841. In 1909, the "first official Austrian airfield" was inaugurated north of the city. It served as a training ground for the flight pioneers "Igo Etrich, Karl Illner and Adolf Warchalowski, who conducted their tests there.
During "World War II, "strategic targets in Wiener Neustadt, including the marshalling yards, the "Wiener Neustädter Flugzeugwerke (WNF) factory, and two "Raxwerke plants which used "forced laborers imprisoned at "Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, were repeatedly "bombed. Bombing operations such as "Operation Pointblank left only 18 of 4,000 buildings undamaged.
The average monthly temperatures are generally cool (see table below), with summer months reaching 21–26 °C (70–79 °F) and winter months reaching a few degrees above freezing in the daytime.
|Climate chart ("explanation)|
"Wiener Neustadt Hauptbahnhof ("German: main station) connects Wiener Neustadt with other major population centers. It is owned and operated by the "Austrian Federal Railway. Wiener Neustadt is also served by "Autobahn.
The city has two airfields (the military "Wiener Neustadt West Airport, the first airfield in Austria, and the civil "Wiener Neustadt East Airport) and is the starting point of Austria's only "shipping canal, the "Wiener Neustadt Canal, which was meant to reach out to "Trieste but was never finished.
The most recent extension of the city is the Civitas Nova, Latin for new city, an ambitious project for an industrial, research and commercial center. In 2015, on the area of the Civitas Nova, a cancer treatment center for "ion therapy will be opened under the name of MedAustron.
In 1996 Wiener Neustadt received international attention as the so-called "sidewalk" designed by Japanese artist "Tadashi Kawamata was built around the main square. Wiener Neustadt is the setting for the book Reluctant Return: A Survivor's Journey to an Austrian town.
The European horseback jumping championships of 2015 for children, juniors and young riders was set up at Lake Arena, outside of Wiener Neustadt.
|"Wikisource has the text of the "1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Wiener-Neustadt.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wiener Neustadt.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Wiener Neustadt.|