Along with fellow "British Army Generals Clinton and Burgoyne, Howe arrived at "Boston aboard the "HMS Cerberus on 25 May 1775, having learned en route that war had broken out with the skirmishes at the marches to "Lexington and Concord in April. It provided naval reinforcement at the "Battle of Bunker Hill. He led a force of 4,000 troops sent to reinforce the 5,000 troops under General "Thomas Gage who were "besieged in the city after those battles. Gage, Howe, and Generals Clinton and Burgoyne discussed plans to break the siege. They formulated a plan to seize high ground around Boston and attack the besieging colonial militia forces, setting its execution for 18 June. However, the colonists learned of the plan and fortified the heights of "Breed's Hill and nearby "Bunker Hill on the Charlestown peninsula across the "Charles River from Boston on the night of 16–17 June, forcing the British leadership to rethink their strategy.
Bunker Hill and Boston
In a war council held early on 17 June, the generals developed a plan calling for a direct assault on the colonial fortification, and Gage gave Howe command of the operation. Despite a sense of urgency (the colonists were still working on the fortifications at the time of the council), the attack, now known as the "Battle of Bunker Hill, did not begin until that afternoon. With Howe personally leading the right wing of the attack, the first two assaults were firmly repulsed by the colonial defenders. Howe's third assault gained the objective, but the cost of the day's battle was appallingly heavy. The British casualties, more than 1,000 killed or wounded, were the highest of any engagement in the war. Howe described it as a "success ... too dearly bought." Although Howe exhibited courage on the battlefield, his tactics and overwhelming confidence were criticised. One subordinate wrote that Howe's "absurd and destructive confidence" played a role in the number of casualties incurred.
Although Howe was not injured in the battle, it had a pronounced effect on his spirit. According to British historian "George Otto Trevelyan, the battle "exercised a permanent and most potent influence" especially on Howe's behaviour, and that Howe's military skills thereafter "were apt to fail him at the very moment when they were especially wanted." Despite an outward appearance of confidence and popularity with his troops, the "genial six-footer with a face some people described as 'coarse'", privately often exhibited a lack of self-confidence, and in later campaigns became somewhat dependent on his older brother Richard (the admiral in the "Royal Navy, also on station in the Colonies) for advice and approval.
On 11 October 1775, General Gage sailed for England, and Howe took over as "Commander-in-Chief of the British Army in America. British military planners in London had, with the outbreak of hostilities, begun planning a massive reinforcement of the troops in North America. Their plans, made with recommendations from Howe, called for the abandonment of Boston and the establishment of bases in New York and "Newport, Rhode Island in an attempt to isolate the rebellion to New England. When orders arrived in November to execute these plans, Howe opted to remain in Boston for the winter and begin the campaign in 1776. As a result, the remainder of the "Siege of Boston was largely a stalemate. Howe never attempted a major engagement with the "Continental Army, which had come under the command of Major General "George Washington. He did, however, spend a fair amount of time at the gambling tables, and allegedly established a relationship with Elizabeth Lloyd Loring, the wife of Loyalist "Joshua Loring, Jr. Loring apparently acquiesced to this arrangement, and was rewarded by Howe with the position of commissary of prisoners. Contemporaries and historians have criticised Howe for both his gambling and the amount of time he supposedly spent with Mrs. Loring, with some going so far as to level accusations that this behaviour interfered with his military activities; historian John Alden does not give these ideas credence. The alleged relationship is also mentioned in "The Battle of the Kegs, an American propaganda ballad written by "Francis Hopkinson. In January 1776 Howe's role as commander in chief was cemented with a promotion to full general in North America.
The siege was broken in March 1776 when Continental Army Colonel "Henry Knox brought "heavy artillery from Fort Ticonderoga to Boston during the winter, and General Washington used them to "fortify Dorchester Heights, overlooking Boston and its harbour. Howe at first planned an assault on this position, but a snowstorm interfered, and he eventually decided to withdraw from Boston. On 17 March, British troops and Loyalists "evacuated the city, and sailed for "Halifax, Nova Scotia.
New York campaign
Howe and his troops began to arrive outside "New York Harbour and made an uncontested landing on "Staten Island to the west in early July. Howe, whose orders from "Lord George Germain, the Secretary of State responsible for directing the war from Westminster, were fairly clear that he should avoid conflict before the arrival of reinforcements, then waited until those reinforcements arrived in mid-August, along with the naval commander, his brother Richard. This delay proved to be somewhat costly, since the Americans used this time to improve fortifications on northwestern "Long Island (at "Brooklyn Heights along the "East River shoreline) and increased the size of their "Continental Army with additional militia. After moving most of his army by amphibious barges across the "Verazzano Narrows to southwestern Long Island without opposition, he attacked the American positions on 27 August in what became known as the "Battle of Long Island. In a well-executed manoeuvre, a large column led by Howe and Clinton passed around the American left flank, through the lightly guarded "Jamaica Pass far to the east, (a ridge of hills running east to west bisected the island, with a series of lower entrances that were all guarded by Continentals except inexplicably to the farthest east at Jamaica), catching the Patriots off-guard and routing the Americans from their forward positions back into the entrenchments on Brooklyn Heights. Despite the urging of Clinton and others, Howe decided against an immediate assault on these fortifications, claiming "the Troops had for that day done handsomely enough." He instead began siege operations, methodically advancing on the entrenched Americans. This decision allowed General Washington to successfully orchestrate a nighttime strategic "withdrawal across the "East River on the night of 29–30 August, aided by a thick morning fog. Historian George Bilias notes that had Howe attacked Brooklyn Heights, the capture of even half of Washington's army, and possibly Washington himself, might have had a significant effect on the rebellion. Some officers, notably General Clinton, were critical of Howe's decision not to storm the American works. Howe was "knighted as a reward for his victory on Long Island.
Howe and his brother Richard had, as part of their instructions, been assigned roles as peace commissioners, with limited authority to treat with the rebels. After Long Island, they pursued an attempt at reconciliation, sending the captured General "John Sullivan to Philadelphia with a proposal for a peace conference. "The meeting that resulted, conducted by Admiral Howe, was unsuccessful. The Howes had been given limited powers, as had the Congressional representatives, and the latter were insistent that the British recognise the recently declared "colonial independence. This was not within the Howes' powers, so the conference failed, and Howe then continued the campaign. He first "landed troops on Manhattan on 15 September, and occupied New York City (which then occupied only Lower Manhattan), although his advance northward on Manhattan was checked the next day "at Harlem Heights. He then paused, spending nearly one month consolidating control of New York City and awaiting reinforcements. During this time he ordered the execution of "Nathan Hale for espionage, and had to deal with the effects of a "major fire in the city. He then attempted a landing on the mainland at "Throgs Neck, intending to flank Washington's position at Harlem Heights. However, the narrow causeway between the beach and the mainland was well-defended, and he ended up withdrawing the troops. He then made a successful "landing of troops at Pell's Point in "Westchester County; Washington managed to avoid being flanked, retreating to "White Plains. Howe successfully forced Washington out of the New York area in the 28 October "Battle of White Plains, and then turned his attention to consolidate British hold on Manhattan. In November he attacked the remaining Continental Army stronghold in the "Battle of Fort Washington, taking several thousand prisoners.
Washington then retreated across New Jersey, followed by Howe's advance forces under "Charles Cornwallis. At this point, Howe prepared troops under the command of General Clinton for embarkation to occupy Newport, the other major goal of his plan. Clinton proposed that these troops instead be landed in New Jersey, either opposite Staten Island or on the "Delaware River, trapping Washington or even capturing the seat of the Continental Congress, "Philadelphia. Howe rejected these proposals, despatching Clinton and General "Hugh, Earl Percy, two vocal critics of his leadership, to take Newport. In early December Howe came to "Trenton, New Jersey to arrange the disposition of his troops for the winter. Washington had retreated all the way across the Delaware, and Howe returned to New York, believing the campaign to be ended for the season. When Washington "attacked the Hessian quarters at Trenton on 26 December 1776, Howe sent Cornwallis to reform the army in New Jersey and chase after Washington. Cornwallis was frustrated in this, with Washington "gaining a second victory at Trenton and "a third at Princeton. Howe recalled the army to positions much closer to New York for the winter.
Howe has been criticised by contemporaries and historians for failing to decisively defeat the Continental Army during the New York campaign. Contemporaries complained that his landing in Westchester failed to trap Washington, but failed to understand that his goal in the campaign was to secure Manhattan, and not necessarily to defeat Washington. However, historian George Billias observes that Howe's overly rigid adherence to his plans meant that he was unable to capitalise on the opportunities that arose during the campaign for a decisive action.
On 30 November 1776, as Washington was retreating across New Jersey, Howe had written to Germain with plans for the 1777 campaign season. He proposed to send a 10,000-man force up the "Hudson River to capture "Albany, New York, in conjunction with an expedition sent south from "Province of Quebec. He again wrote to Germain on 20 December 1776 with more elaborate proposals for 1777. These again included operations to gain control of the Hudson River, and included expanded operations from the base at Newport, and an expedition to take Philadelphia. The latter Howe saw as attractive, since Washington was then just north of the city: Howe wrote that he was "persuaded the Principal Army should act offensively [against Philadelphia], where the enemy's chief strength lies." Germain acknowledged that this plan was particularly "well digested", but it called for more men that Germain was prepared to provide. After the setbacks in New Jersey, Howe in mid-January 1777 proposed operations against Philadelphia that included an overland expedition and a sea-based attack, thinking this might lead to a decisive victory over the Continental Army. This plan was developed to the extent that in April, Howe's army was seen constructing pontoon bridges; Washington, lodged in his winter quarters at "Morristown, New Jersey, thought they were for eventual use on the Delaware River. However, by mid-May Howe had apparently abandoned the idea of an overland expedition: "I propose to invade Pennsylvania by sea ... we must probably abandon the Jersies."
When the campaign season opened in May 1777, General Washington moved most of his army from its winter quarters in "Morristown, New Jersey to a "strongly fortified position in the "Watchung Mountains. In June 1777, Howe began a series of odd moves in New Jersey, apparently in an attempt to draw Washington and his army out of that position onto terrain more favourable for a general engagement. His motives for this are uncertain; historian John Buchanan argues that Howe was determined to attempt to draw Washington into a major engagement while both were in northern New Jersey, writing that "Washington's shift in position had whetted Howe's appetite for a major action when, if everything went right, he would finally accomplish what he and his brother's policies had denied him the previous year: the destruction of the Continental Army", but that Howe's underlying campaign goal for the season was Philadelphia. One British major wrote that "[t]he report circulated by those in power is that it was thought necessary to march to Hilsborough ["sic] to offer Washington battle." Americans like "Henry Knox were perplexed but also concluded that was its purpose: "It was unaccountable that [the British] should stop short when they had gone only nine miles ... In the course of a day or two [we] discovered that they ... had come out with an intention of drawing us into the plain." Washington had intelligence that Howe had moved without taking the heavy river-crossing equipment, and was apparently not fooled at all.
When Washington failed to take the bait, Howe withdrew the army to Perth Amboy, under harassment by Colonel "Daniel Morgan's elite light unit, "Morgan's Riflemen, who used their superior weapons to snipe at and harry his forces as they moved. Washington moved down to a more exposed position, assuming Howe was going to embark his army on ships. Howe then launched a lightning strike designed to cut Washington's retreat off. This attempt was foiled by the "Battle of Short Hills, which gave Washington time to retreat to a more secure position. Howe then did in fact embark his army and sailed south with his brother's fleet. Howe maintained an effective secrecy surrounding the fleet's destination: not only did Washington not know where it was going, neither did many British rank and file.
Howe's campaign for Philadelphia began with an amphibious landing at "Head of Elk, Maryland, southwest of the city in late August. Although Howe would have preferred to make a landing on the Delaware River below Philadelphia, reports of well-prepared defences dissuaded him, and the fleet spent almost an entire extra month at sea to reach Head of Elk. Howe's army left Head of Elk early on 3 September 1777 and pushed back an advance guard of American light infantry at "Cooch's Bridge. On 11 September 1777, Howe's army met Washington's near "Chadds Ford along the "Brandywine Creek in the "Battle of Brandywine. Howe established his headquarters at the "Gilpin Homestead, where it stayed until the morning of 16 September. In a reprise of earlier battles, Howe once again flanked the Continental Army position and forced Washington to retreat after inflicting heavy casualties.
After two weeks of manoeuvre and engagements (including "The Battle of the Clouds, "The Paoli Massacre, and an engagement at Valley Forge where "Alexander Hamilton was nearly lost), Howe triumphantly entered the city on 26 September. The reception the British received was not quite what they had expected, however. They had been led to believe that "Friends thicker than Woods" would greet them upon their arrival; they instead were greeted by women, children, and many deserted houses. Despite Howe's best attempts to minimise the plundering by his army (he authorised the execution of violators of his orders against it), this activity by the army had a significant negative effect on popular support.
One week after Howe entered Philadelphia, on 4 October, Washington made a "dawn attack on the British garrison at Germantown. He very nearly won the battle before being repulsed by late-arriving reinforcements sent from the city. This forced Howe to withdraw his troops a little closer to the city, where they were also needed to help clear the American Delaware River defences, which were preventing the navy from resupplying the army. It was late November before this task was accomplished, which included a poorly executed "attack on Fort Mercer by a division of Hessians.
Impact on Burgoyne's campaign
Concomitant with Howe's campaign, General Burgoyne led "his expedition south from "Montreal to capture Albany. Burgoyne's advance was stopped in the "Battles of Saratoga in September and October, and he surrendered his army on 17 October. Burgoyne's surrender, coupled with Howe's near defeat at Germantown, dramatically altered the strategic balance of the conflict. Support for the "Continental Congress, suffering from Howe's successful occupation of Philadelphia, was strengthened, and the victory encouraged France to "enter the war against Britain. Burgoyne's loss also further weakened the "British government of "Lord North.
Burgoyne made his advance under the assumption that he would be met in Albany by Howe or troops sent by Howe. Burgoyne was apparently not aware that Howe's plans had evolved as they had. Although Germain knew what Howe's plans were, whether he communicated them to Burgoyne is unclear. Some sources claim he did while others state that Burgoyne was not notified of the changes until the campaign was well underway. Whether Germain, Howe and Burgoyne had the same expectations about the degree to which Howe was supposed to support the invasion from Quebec is also unclear. Some historians argue that Howe failed to follow instructions and essentially abandoned Burgoyne's army, while others suggest that Burgoyne failed on his own and then tried to shift the blame to Howe and Clinton.
Howe's decision to focus his own activity on an expedition to Philadelphia may have been motivated by competition with General Burgoyne, who was given command of the northern force despite lobbying by Howe for its command to be given to Clinton. John Alden notes the jealousies among the British leaders, saying, "It is likely that [Howe] was as jealous of Burgoyne as Burgoyne was of him and that he was not eager to do anything which might assist his junior up the ladder of military renown." Along the same lines historian "Don Higginbotham concludes that in Howe's view, "It [the northern campaign] was Burgoyne's whole show, and consequently he [Howe] wanted little to do with it. With regard to Burgoyne's army, he would do only what was required of him (virtually nothing)."
Howe himself wrote to Burgoyne on 17 July that he intended to stay close to Washington: "My intention is for Pennsylvania, where I expect to meet Washington, but if he goes to the northward contrary to my expectations, and you can keep him at bay, be assured I shall soon be after him to relieve you." This suggested that Howe would follow Washington if he went north to assist in the defence of the Hudson. Howe, however, sailed from New York on 23 July. On 30 August, shortly after his arrival at Head of Elk, Howe wrote to Germain that he would be unable to assist Burgoyne, citing a lack of Loyalist support in the Philadelphia area. A small force sent north from New York by General Clinton in early October was also unable to assist Burgoyne.
In October 1777 Howe sent his letter of resignation to London, complaining that he had been inadequately supported in that year's campaigns. He was finally notified in April 1778 that his resignation was accepted. A grand party, known as the ""Mischianza", was thrown for the departing general on 18 May. Organized by his aides "John André and "Oliver De Lancey Jr., the party featured a grand parade, fireworks, and dancing until dawn. Washington, aware that the British were planning to evacuate Philadelphia, sent the "Marquis de Lafayette out with a small force on the night of the party to determine British movements. This movement was noticed by alert British troops, and Howe ordered a column out to entrap the marquis. In the "Battle of Barren Hill, Lafayette escaped the trap with minimal casualties.
On 24 May, the day Howe sailed for England, General Clinton took over as "commander-in-chief of British armies in America, and made preparations for an overland march to New York. Howe arrived back in England on 1 July, where he and his brother faced censure for their actions in North America. It is likely that the resignation of both William and his brother Richard was due to their desire to hurry home to vindicate their conduct during the campaign. In 1779 Howe and his brother demanded a parliamentary inquiry into their actions. The inquiry that followed was unable to confirm any charges of impropriety or mismanagement levelled against either of them. Because of the inconclusive nature of the inquiry, attacks continued to be made against Howe in pamphlets and the press, and in 1780 he published a response to accusations levelled by Loyalist "Joseph Galloway, who issued a reply that harshly criticized the general's conduct and accused him of deliberately undermining the war effort for the benefit of the anti-war Whig faction in Parliament.
In 1780 Howe lost in his bid to be re-elected to the House of Commons. In 1782 he was named lieutenant general of the ordnance and appointed to the "Privy Council. His colonelcy was transferred from the 23rd Fusiliers to the "19th Light Dragoons in 1786. He resumed limited active duty in 1789, when "a crisis with Spain over territorial claims in northwestern North America threatened to boil over into war. The crisis was resolved, and Howe did not see further action until 1793, when the "French Revolutionary Wars involved Britain. He was promoted to full general in 1793, and commanded "Northern District from 1793 and "Eastern District from 1795. In 1795 he was also appointed governor of "Berwick-on-Tweed.
When his brother Richard died in 1799 without surviving male issue, Howe inherited the Irish titles and became the 5th "Viscount Howe and Baron Clenawly. In 1803 he resigned as lieutenant general of the ordnance, citing poor health. In 1805 he was appointed governor of "Plymouth, and died at "Twickenham in 1814 after a long illness. He was married in 1765 to Frances Connolly, but the marriage was childless, and his titles died with him. His wife survived him by three years; both are buried in Twickenham.
Howe appears as an antagonist in the supernatural TV series "Sleepy Hollow, depicted in flashbacks by "Nicholas Guest and described in the present as being notorious for his brilliant tactics and ruthless cruelty. In his historical role as the British military leader in the War for Independence, Howe was acquainted with "Ichabod Crane ("Tom Mison) before Crane defected to America; his first major flashback appearance sees him offer Crane a chance to return to Britain if he identifies Washington's spies in the British forces, with Crane feeling guilty that he was briefly tempted by the offer. Howe also plays a key role in the crossover episodes between Sleepy Hollow and crime drama "Bones; his body is discovered in a small American church in the present (characters noting that he is recorded as being buried in Twickenham), with his skull being identified as the 'murder weapon' in Bones episode "The Resurrection in the Remains", and he is resurrected as a zombie-like warrior in the following Sleepy Hollow episode "Dead Men Tell No Tales", requiring Crane to destroy him with "Greek fire.
- Alden (1989), p. 222
- Fischer, p. 67
- Gruber, pp. 45–47
- Alden (1989), p. 223
- Madeira. [Signed: T. H., i.e. the Hon. Thomas Howe. Edited by A. Dalrymple.]
- Memoir of a Chart of the N.W. Coast of Madagascar by Capt. David Inverarity
- Billias, p. 43
- Leckie, p. 145
- Gruber, p. 56
- Pocock, p. 208
- Billias, p. 44
- Fischer, pp. 70–71
- Gruber, p. 58
- Billias, p. 45
- Ketchum (1999), p. 2
- Mainwaring, p. 346
- Kathy Abbass and Rod Mather. "The History of the HMS Cerberus and HMS Lark". Retrieved 2013-11-09.
- Ketchum (1999), p. 46
- Ketchum (1999), pp. 110–111
- Willcox, p. 48
- Ketchum (1999), pp. 151–183
- Brooks, p. 237
- Billias, p. 47
- Trevelyan, p. 1:338
- Fleming, p. 44
- Ketchum (1999), p. 213
- Gruber, p. 82
- Billias, p. 48
- Fischer, p. 72
- Alden (1989), p. 504
- Hadden, p. 375
- Ketchum (1999), pp. 214–217
- Ketchum (1999), p. 218
- Fischer, p. 32
- Gruber, p. 84
- Billias, p. 51
- Billias, p. 53
- Fischer, p. 99
- Fischer, pp. 100–101
- Gruber, p. 114
- Gruber, pp. 116–119
- Leckie, pp. 277–278
- Gruber, p. 127
- Fischer, pp. 106–108
- Gruber, pp. 129–131
- Gruber, pp. 131–132
- Fischer, pp. 110–111
- Fischer, p. 113
- Fischer, pp. 117–132
- Gruber, p. 135
- Fredriksen, p. 386
- Gruber, pp. 137–138
- Fischer, pp. 259–295
- Gruber, pp. 154–156
- Gruber, p. 133
- Billias, p. 55
- Ketchum (1997), p. 81
- Martin, p. 11
- Gruber, p. 183
- Ketchum (1997), p. 61
- Mintz, p. 117
- Martin, p. 22
- Martin, pp. 23–27
- Buchanan, p. 206
- Buchanan, pp. 198–199
- McGuire, p. 39
- Martin, p. 23
- Martin, pp. 24–31
- Billias, pp. 60–61
- "National Historic Landmarks & National Register of Historic Places in Pennsylvania" (Searchable database). CRGIS: Cultural Resources Geographic Information System. Note: This includes Pennsylvania Register of Historic Sites and Landmarks (August 1971). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form: Gilpin Homestead" (PDF). Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- Gruber, pp. 240–241
- Gruber, p. 241
- Gruber, p. 242
- Gruber, p. 243
- Martin, pp. 99–120
- Gruber, pp. 247–260
- Griffith, p. 369
- Mintz, p. 234
- Trevelyan, p. 3:249
- Ketchum (1997), pp. 446–447
- Ketchum (1997), p. 442
- Ketchum (1997), p. 84
- Boatner, pp. 134–135
- Mintz, p. 124
- Alden (1954), p. 118
- Higginbotham, p. 180
- Mintz, p. 164
- Martin, p. 31
- Pancake, p. 167
- Ketchum (1997), p. 385
- Martin, p. 181
- Martin, pp. 182–186
- Martin, p. 198
- Gruber, p. 325
- Syrett, p. 74
- Billias, p. 62
- Galloway, Joseph. A reply to the observations of Lieut. Gen. Sir William Howe (1780)
- Billias, p. 63
- Hadden, p. 379
- Hadden, p. 380
- Many sources, including the DNB, assume he was at Plymouth when he died. This is probably based on an early misreading of his obituary, published in the "Gentleman's Magazine in 1814 (Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 116, p. 93). The obituary does not state he died there; an annual register records his death at Twickenham, as do the editors of Hadden's Journal. (Edinburgh Annual Register, for 1814, p. cdxlvii; Hadden, p. 380)
- Cokayne, p. 269
- "Dead Men Tell No Tales". "The Futon Critic. Futon Media. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Frith, Vanessa (October 5, 2015). "'Sleepy Hollow' Season 3: Bones Crossover Plot Revealed! How Will Science & The Supernatural Mix [VIDEO]". Enstarz. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Alden, John R (1954). The American Revolution: 1775–1783. New York: Harper. "OCLC 165049515.
- Alden, John R (1989) . A History of the American Revolution. New York: Da Capo Press. "ISBN "978-0-306-80366-6. "OCLC 19846752.
- Anderson, Troyer (1936). The Command of the Howe Brothers During the American Revolution. New York and London: Oxford University Press. "ISBN "978-0-403-00816-2. "OCLC 1281930.
- Billias, George Athan (1969). George Washington's Opponents. New York: William Morrow. "OCLC 11709.
- Boatner, Mark M (1994) . Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. "ISBN "978-0-8117-0578-3. "OCLC 29595553.
- Brooks, Victor (1999). The Boston Campaign. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Publishing. "ISBN "1-58097-007-9. "OCLC 42581510.
- Buchanan, John (2004). The Road to Valley Forge: How Washington Built the Army That Won the Revolution. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. "ISBN "978-0-471-44156-4. "OCLC 231991487.
- Chichester, Henry M (1885–1900). "Howe, William (1729-1814)". "Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Cokayne, George Edward (1892). Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant, Volume 4. London: G. Bell and Sons. "OCLC 2052386.
- "Fischer, David Hackett (2004). "Washington's Crossing. New York: Oxford University Press. "ISBN "0-19-518159-X.
- Fleming, Thomas (2006). Washington's Secret War. New York: HarperCollins. "ISBN "978-0-06-082962-9. "OCLC 61529854.
- Fredriksen, John C (2001). America's Military Adversaries: From Colonial Times to the Present. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC–CLIO. "ISBN "978-1-57607-603-3. "OCLC 248864750.
- Griffith, Samuel B (2002). The War for American Independence: From 1760 to the Surrender at Yorktown in 1781. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. "ISBN "978-0-252-02745-1. "OCLC 48222590.
- Gruber, Ira (1972). The Howe Brothers and the American Revolution. New York: Atheneum Press. "ISBN "978-0-8078-1229-7. "OCLC 1464455.
- Hadden, James M; Rogers, Horatio (1884). A Journal Kept in Canada and Upon Burgoyne's Campaign in 1776 and 1777 by Lieut. James M. Hadden. J. Munsell's Sons. "OCLC 2130358.
- "Higginbotham, Don (1971). The War of American Independence. New York: Macmillan. "OCLC 142627.
- Ketchum, Richard M (1997). Saratoga: Turning Point of America's Revolutionary War. New York: Henry Holt. "ISBN "978-0-8050-6123-9. "OCLC 41397623.
- Ketchum, Richard M (1999). Decisive Day: The Battle of Bunker Hill. New York: Owl Books. "ISBN "0-385-41897-3. "OCLC 24147566. (Paperback: "ISBN 0-8050-6099-5)
- Leckie, Robert (1993). George Washington's War: The Saga of the American Revolution. New York: HarperCollins. "ISBN "978-0-06-092215-3. "OCLC 29748139.
- Mainwaring, Rowland Broughton (1889). Historical Record of the Royal Welch Fusiliers. London: Hatchards, Piccadilly. "OCLC 220264572.
- Martin, David G (1993). The Philadelphia Campaign: June 1777 – July 1778. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books. "ISBN "0-938289-19-5. 2003 Da Capo reprint, "ISBN 0-306-81258-4.
- McGuire, Thomas J (2006). The Philadelphia Campaign, Vol. I: Brandywine and the Fall of Philadelphia. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. "ISBN "978-0-8117-0178-5.
- Mintz, Max M (1990). The Generals of Saratoga: John Burgoyne and Horatio Gates. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. "ISBN "978-0-300-04778-3. "OCLC 644565187.
- Pancake, John (1985). This Destructive War. University, AL: University of Alabama Press. "ISBN "0-8173-0191-7. "OCLC 59831925.
- Pocock, Tom (1998). Battle for Empire: The Very First World War, 1756–63. London: Michael O'Mara Books. "ISBN "978-1-85479-332-4. "OCLC 185667821.
- Syrett, David (2006). Admiral Lord Howe: A Biography. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. "ISBN "978-1-59114-006-1. "OCLC 70660963.
- "Trevelyan, George Otto (1898). The American Revolution, Part 1. New York: Longmans, Green, and Co. "OCLC 20011020.
- Willcox, William (1964). Portrait of a General: Sir Henry Clinton in the War of Independence. New York: Alfred A Knopf. "OCLC 245684727.
- The Edinburgh Annual Register, for 1814. Edinburgh: Archibald Constable. 1816. "OCLC 55271916.
- The Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 116. London: E. Cave. 1814. "OCLC 7898058.
- Gruber, Ira D. The Howe Brothers and the American Revolution (1974)
- O'Shaughnessy, Andrew Jackson. The Men Who Lost America: British Leadership, the American Revolution, and the Fate of the Empire (2014).
- Smith, David. William Howe and the American War of Independence (London: Bloomsbury, 2015) 201 pp.
- Moomaw, W. H. "The Denouement of General Howe's Campaign of 1777". English Historical Review (Vol. 79, No. 312 (July 1964)): pp. 498–512. "JSTOR 560990.
- Howe, Viscount William (1780). The Narrative of Lieut. Gen. Sir William Howe: in a Committee of the House of Commons, on the 29th of April, 1779, Relative to his Conduct, During his Late Command of the King's Troops in North America. London: H. Baldwin. "OCLC 474948690. Howe's 1780 pamphlet defending his conduct in North America
- Galloway, Joseph (1780). A Reply to the Observations of Lieut. Gen. Sir William Howe, on a Pamphlet, entitled Letters to a Nobleman. London: G. Wilkie. "OCLC 671515186. "Joseph Galloway's response to Howe's pamphlet
- General Howe's Orderly book June 30, 1776 – Oct 1776
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Howe, William Howe, 5th Viscount". "Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.