During September and October, Sherman and Hood played cat-and-mouse in north Georgia (and Alabama) as Hood threatened Sherman's communications to the north. Eventually, Sherman won approval from his superiors for a plan to cut loose from his communications and march south, having advised Grant that he could "make Georgia howl." This created the threat that Hood would move north into Tennessee. Trivializing that threat, Sherman reportedly said that he would "give [Hood] his rations" to go in that direction as "my business is down south." However, Sherman left forces under Maj. Gens. George H. Thomas and John M. Schofield to deal with Hood; their forces eventually smashed Hood's army in the battles of "Franklin (November 30) and "Nashville (December 15–16). Meanwhile, after the November elections, Sherman began a march with 62,000 men to the port of "Savannah, Georgia, living off the land and causing, by his own estimate, more than $100 million in property damage. Sherman called this harsh tactic of material war "hard war," often seen as a species of "total war. At the end of this campaign, known as Sherman's March to the Sea, his troops captured Savannah on December 21, 1864. Sherman then dispatched a famous message to Lincoln, offering him the city as a Christmas present.
Sherman's success in Georgia received ample coverage in the Northern press at a time when Grant seemed to be making little progress in his fight against Confederate General "Robert E. Lee's "Army of Northern Virginia. A bill was introduced in Congress to promote Sherman to Grant's rank of "lieutenant general, probably with a view towards having him replace Grant as commander of the Union Army. Sherman wrote both to his brother, Senator John Sherman, and to General Grant vehemently repudiating any such promotion. According to a war-time account, it was around this time that Sherman made his memorable declaration of loyalty to Grant:
General Grant is a great general. I know him well. He stood by me when I was crazy, and I stood by him when he was drunk; and now, sir, we stand by each other always.
While in Savannah, Sherman learned from a newspaper that his infant son Charles Celestine had died during the "Savannah Campaign; the general had never seen the child.
Final campaigns in the Carolinas
Grant then ordered Sherman to embark his army on steamers and join the Union forces confronting Lee in Virginia, but Sherman instead persuaded Grant to allow him to march north through "the Carolinas, destroying everything of military value along the way, as he had done in Georgia. He was particularly interested in targeting "South Carolina, the first state to "secede from the Union, because of the effect that it would have on Southern morale. His army proceeded north through South Carolina against light resistance from the troops of Confederate General "Joseph E. Johnston. Upon hearing that Sherman's men were advancing on "corduroy roads through the "Salkehatchie "swamps at a rate of a dozen miles per day, Johnston "made up his mind that there had been no such army in existence since the days of "Julius Caesar."
Sherman "captured the state capital of "Columbia, South Carolina, on February 17, 1865. Fires began that night and by next morning most of the central city was destroyed. The burning of Columbia has engendered controversy ever since, with some claiming the fires were accidental, others a deliberate act of vengeance, and still others that the retreating Confederates burned bales of cotton on their way out of town.
Local Native American "Lumbee guides helped Sherman's army cross the "Lumber River, which was flooded by torrential rains, into "North Carolina. According to Sherman, the trek across the Lumber River, and through the swamps, "pocosins, and creeks of "Robeson County was "the damnedest marching I ever saw." Thereafter, his troops did little damage to the civilian infrastructure, as North Carolina, unlike its southern neighbor, was regarded by his men as a reluctant Confederate state, having been the second from last state to secede from the Union, before Tennessee. Sherman's final significant military engagement was a victory over Johnston's troops at the "Battle of Bentonville, March 19–21. He soon rendezvoused at "Goldsborough, North Carolina, with Union troops awaiting him there after the capture of Fort Fisher and Wilmington.
In late March, Sherman briefly left his forces and traveled to City Point, Virginia, to consult with Grant. Lincoln happened to be at City Point at the same time, allowing the only three-way meetings of Lincoln, Grant, and Sherman during the war.
Following Lee's surrender to Grant at "Appomattox Court House and the "assassination of President Lincoln, Sherman met with Johnston at "Bennett Place in "Durham, North Carolina, to negotiate a Confederate surrender. At the insistence of Johnston and of Confederate President "Jefferson Davis, Sherman conditionally agreed to generous terms that dealt with both political and military issues. Sherman thought that those terms were consistent with the views Lincoln had expressed at City Point, but the general had not been given the authority, by General Grant, the newly installed President "Andrew Johnson, or the "Cabinet, to offer those terms.
The government in Washington, D.C., refused to approve Sherman's terms and the "Secretary of War, "Edwin M. Stanton, denounced Sherman publicly, precipitating a long-lasting feud between the two men. Confusion over this issue lasted until April 26, 1865, when Johnston, ignoring instructions from President Davis, agreed to purely military terms and formally surrendered his army and all the Confederate forces in the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida, in what was the largest single capitulation of the war. Sherman proceeded with 60,000 of his troops to Washington, D.C., where they marched in the "Grand Review of the Armies, on May 24, 1865, and were then disbanded. Having become the second most important general in the Union army, he thus had come full circle to the city where he started his war-time service as colonel of a non-existent infantry regiment.
Slavery and emancipation
Sherman was not an "abolitionist before the war and, like others of his time and background, he did not believe in "Negro equality." Before the war, Sherman at times even expressed some sympathy with the view of Southern whites that the black race was benefiting from slavery, although he opposed breaking up slave families and advocated teaching slaves to read and write. During the Civil War, Sherman declined to employ black troops in his armies.
Sherman's military campaigns of 1864 and 1865 freed many slaves, who greeted him "as a second "Moses or "Aaron" and joined his marches through Georgia and the Carolinas by the tens of thousands. The fate of these refugees became a pressing military and political issue. Some abolitionists accused Sherman of doing little to alleviate the precarious living conditions of the freed slaves. To address this issue, on January 12, 1865, Sherman met in Savannah with Secretary of War Stanton and with twenty local black leaders. After Sherman's departure, Garrison Frazier, a "Baptist minister, declared in response to an inquiry about the feelings of the black community:
We looked upon General Sherman, prior to his arrival, as a man, in the providence of God, specially set apart to accomplish this work, and we unanimously felt inexpressible gratitude to him, looking upon him as a man that should be honored for the faithful performance of his duty. Some of us called upon him immediately upon his arrival, and it is probable he did not meet [Secretary Stanton] with more courtesy than he met us. His conduct and deportment toward us characterized him as a friend and a gentleman.
Four days later, Sherman issued his "Special Field Orders, No. 15. The orders provided for the settlement of 40,000 freed slaves and black refugees on land expropriated from white landowners in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Sherman appointed Brig. Gen. "Rufus Saxton, an abolitionist from "Massachusetts who had previously directed the recruitment of black soldiers, to implement that plan. Those orders, which became the basis of the claim that the Union government had promised freed slaves ""40 acres and a mule", were revoked later that year by President "Andrew Johnson.
Although the context is often overlooked, and the quotation usually chopped off, one of Sherman's most famous statements about his hard-war views arose in part from the racial attitudes summarized above. In his Memoirs, Sherman noted political pressures in 1864–1865 to encourage the escape of slaves, in part to avoid the possibility that "'able-bodied slaves will be called into the military service of the rebels.'" Sherman thought concentration on such policies would have delayed the "successful end" of the war and the "liberat[ion of] all slaves." He went on to summarize vividly his hard-war philosophy and to add, in effect, that he really did not want the help of liberated slaves in subduing the South:
My aim then was to whip the rebels, to humble their pride, to follow them to their inmost recesses, and make them fear and dread us. "Fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom." I did not want them to cast in our teeth what General Hood had once done at Atlanta, that we had to call on their slaves to help us to subdue them. But, as regards kindness to the race ..., I assert that no army ever did more for that race than the one I commanded at Savannah.
Sherman's record as a "tactician was mixed, and his military legacy rests primarily on his command of "logistics and on his brilliance as a "strategist. The influential 20th-century British military historian and theorist "B. H. Liddell Hart ranked Sherman as one of the most important strategists in the annals of war, along with "Scipio Africanus, "Belisarius, "Napoleon Bonaparte, "T. E. Lawrence, and "Erwin Rommel. Liddell Hart credited Sherman with mastery of "maneuver warfare (also known as the "indirect approach"), as demonstrated by his series of turning movements against Johnston during the Atlanta Campaign. Liddell Hart also stated that study of Sherman's campaigns had contributed significantly to his own "theory of strategy and tactics in "mechanized warfare", which had in turn influenced "Heinz Guderian's doctrine of "Blitzkrieg and Rommel's use of "tanks during the Second World War. Another World War II-era student of Liddell Hart's writings about Sherman was "George S. Patton, who "'spent a long vacation studying Sherman's campaigns on the ground in Georgia and the Carolinas, with the aid of [Liddell Hart's] book'" and later "'carried out his [bold] plans, in super-Sherman style'".
Sherman's greatest contribution to the war, the strategy of "total warfare—endorsed by General Grant and President Lincoln—has been the subject of controversy. Sherman himself downplayed his role in conducting total war, often saying that he was simply carrying out orders as best he could in order to fulfill his part of Grant's master plan for ending the war.
Like Grant, Sherman was convinced that the "Confederacy's strategic, economic, and psychological ability to wage further war needed to be definitively crushed if the fighting were to end. Therefore, he believed that the North had to conduct its campaign as a war of conquest and employ "scorched earth tactics to break the backbone of the rebellion. He called this strategy "hard war."
Sherman's advance through Georgia and South Carolina was characterized by widespread destruction of civilian supplies and infrastructure. Although "looting was officially forbidden, historians disagree on how well this regulation was enforced. Union soldiers who foraged from Southern homes became known as "bummers. The speed and efficiency of the destruction by Sherman's army was remarkable. The practice of heating rails and bending them around trees, leaving behind what came to be known as ""Sherman's neckties," made repairs difficult. Accusations that civilians were targeted and "war crimes were committed on the march have made Sherman a controversial figure to this day, particularly in the "American South.
The damage done by Sherman was almost entirely limited to the destruction of "property. Though exact figures are not available, the loss of civilian life appears to have been very small. Consuming supplies, wrecking infrastructure, and undermining morale were Sherman's stated goals, and several of his Southern contemporaries noted this and commented on it. For instance, "Alabama-born Major Henry Hitchcock, who served in Sherman's staff, declared that "it is a terrible thing to consume and destroy the sustenance of thousands of people," but if the scorched earth strategy served "to paralyze their husbands and fathers who are fighting ... it is mercy in the end."
The severity of the destructive acts by Union troops was significantly greater in South Carolina than in Georgia or North Carolina. This appears to have been a consequence of the animosity among both Union soldiers and officers to the state that they regarded as the "cockpit of secession." One of the most serious accusations against Sherman was that he allowed his troops to burn the city of Columbia. In 1867, Gen. "O. O. Howard, commander of Sherman's 15th Corps, reportedly said, "It is useless to deny that our troops burnt Columbia, for I saw them in the act." However, Sherman himself stated that "[i]f I had made up my mind to burn Columbia I would have burnt it with no more feeling than I would a common prairie dog village; but I did not do it ..." Sherman's official report on the burning placed the blame on Confederate Lt. Gen. "Wade Hampton III, who Sherman said had ordered the burning of cotton in the streets. In his memoirs, Sherman said, "In my official report of this conflagration I distinctly charged it to General Wade Hampton, and confess I did so pointedly to shake the faith of his people in him, for he was in my opinion a braggart and professed to be the special champion of South Carolina." Historian "James M. McPherson has concluded that:
The fullest and most dispassionate study of this controversy blames all parties in varying proportions—including the Confederate authorities for the disorder that characterized the evacuation of Columbia, leaving thousands of cotton bales on the streets (some of them burning) and huge quantities of liquor undestroyed ... Sherman did not deliberately burn Columbia; a majority of Union soldiers, including the general himself, worked through the night to put out the fires.
In this general connection, it is also noteworthy that Sherman and his subordinates (particularly John A. Logan) took steps to protect Raleigh, North Carolina, from acts of revenge after the assassination of President Lincoln.
After the fall of Atlanta in 1864, Sherman ordered the city's evacuation. When the city council appealed to him to rescind that order, on the grounds that it would cause great hardship to women, children, the elderly, and others who bore no responsibility for the conduct of the war, Sherman sent a written response in which he sought to articulate his conviction that a lasting peace would be possible only if the Union were restored, and that he was therefore prepared to do all he could do to quash the rebellion:
You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it; and those who brought war into our country deserve all the curses and maledictions a people can pour out. I know I had no hand in making this war, and I know I will make more sacrifices to-day than any of you to secure peace. But you cannot have peace and a division of our country. If the United States submits to a division now, it will not stop, but will go on until we reap the "fate of Mexico, which is eternal war [...] I want peace, and believe it can only be reached through union and war, and I will ever conduct war with a view to perfect and early success. But, my dear sirs, when peace does come, you may call on me for anything. Then will I share with you the last cracker, and watch with you to shield your homes and families against danger from every quarter.
Literary critic "Edmund Wilson found in Sherman's Memoirs a fascinating and disturbing account of an "appetite for warfare" that "grows as it feeds on the South". Former U.S. Defense Secretary "Robert McNamara refers equivocally to the statement that "war is cruelty and you cannot refine it" in both the book Wilson's Ghost and in his interview for the film "The Fog of War.
But when comparing Sherman's scorched-earth campaigns to the actions of the "British Army during the "Second Boer War (1899–1902)—another war in which civilians were targeted because of their central role in sustaining an armed resistance—South African historian Hermann Giliomee declares that it "looks as if Sherman struck a better balance than the British commanders between severity and restraint in taking actions proportional to legitimate needs". The admiration of scholars such as "Victor Davis Hanson, "B. H. Liddell Hart, Lloyd Lewis, and "John F. Marszalek for General Sherman owes much to what they see as an approach to the exigencies of modern armed conflict that was both effective and principled.
In May 1865, after the major Confederate armies had surrendered, Sherman wrote in a personal letter:
I confess, without shame, I am sick and tired of fighting—its glory is all moonshine; even success the most brilliant is over dead and mangled bodies, with the anguish and lamentations of distant families, appealing to me for sons, husbands and fathers ... tis only those who have never heard a shot, never heard the shriek and groans of the wounded and lacerated ... that cry aloud for more blood, more vengeance, more desolation.
Departmental commander and Reconstruction
In June 1865, two months after Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox, General Sherman received his first postwar command, originally called the Military Division of the Mississippi, later the "Military Division of the Missouri, which came to comprise the territory between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. Sherman's efforts in that position were focused on protecting the main wagon roads, such as the "Oregon, "Bozeman and "Santa Fe Trails. Tasked with guarding a vast territory with a limited force, Sherman was wary of the multitude of requests by territories and settlements for protection.
One of Sherman's main concerns in postwar commands was to protect the construction and operation of the railroads from attack by hostile Indians. Sherman's views on Indian matters were often strongly expressed. He regarded the railroads "as the most important element now in progress to facilitate the military interests of our Frontier." Hence, in 1867, he wrote to Grant that "we are not going to let a few thieving, ragged Indians check and stop the progress of [the railroads]." After the 1866 "Fetterman Massacre, Sherman wrote Grant that "we must act with vindictive earnestness against the Sioux, even to their extermination, men, women and children."
Despite this language, there was little large-scale military action taken against the Indians during the first three years of Sherman's tenure, as Sherman was willing to let the process of negotiations play out in order to buy time to procure more troops and allow the completion of the "Union Pacific and "Kansas Pacific Railroads. During his time as departmental commander, Sherman was a member of the "Indian Peace Commission. Though the commission was responsible for the negotiation of the "Medicine Lodge Treaty and the "Sioux Treaty of 1868, Sherman was not particularly privy in either due to being called away to Washington during the negotiations of both. In one such instance, he was called to testify in the "impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson. However, Sherman was successful in negotiating other treaties, such as the removal of Navajos from the "Bosque Redondo to traditional lands in Western New Mexico. When the Medicine Lodge Treaty was broken in 1868, Sherman authorized his subordinate in Missouri, "Philip Sheridan, to conduct the Winter Campaign of 1868–69 (of which the "Battle of Washita River was a part), where Sheridan used hard-war tactics similar to those he and Sherman had employed in the Civil War. Sherman was also involved with the "trial of Satanta and Big Tree: he ordered that the two chiefs should be tried as common criminals for their role in the "Warren Wagon Train Raid, a raid that came dangerously close to killing Sherman himself.
General of the Army
On July 25, 1866, Congress created the rank of "General of the Army for Grant and then promoted Sherman to "lieutenant general. When Grant became "president in 1869, Sherman was appointed "Commanding General of the United States Army and promoted to General of the Army. After the death of "John A. Rawlins, Sherman also served for one month as interim "Secretary of War. His tenure as commanding general was marred by political difficulties, many of which stemmed from disagreements with Secretaries of War Rawlins and "William W. Belknap, who Sherman felt had usurped too much of the Commanding General's powers, reducing him to a sinecure office. Sherman also clashed with Eastern humanitarians, who were critical of the Army's killing of Indians and had apparently found an ally in President Grant. To escape these difficulties, from 1874 to 1876, he moved his headquarters to "St. Louis, Missouri, returning to Washington only upon the appointment of "Alphonso Taft as Secretary of War and the promise of more authority.
Much of Sherman's time as Commanding General was devoted to making the Western and Plains states safe for settlement through the continuation of the Indian Wars, which three significant campaigns during this time being the "Modoc War, the "Great Sioux War of 1876 and the "Nez Perce War. The displacement of Indians was facilitated by the growth of the railroad and the eradication of the buffalo. Sherman believed that the intentional eradication of the buffalo should be encouraged as a means of weakening Indian resistance to assimilation. He voiced this view in remarks to a joint session of the Texas legislature in 1875. However he never engaged in any program to actually eradicate the buffalo. During this time, Sherman reorganized frontier forts to reflect the shifting frontier.
After "George Armstrong Custer's defeat at the "Battle of Little Bighorn, Sherman wrote that "hostile savages like "Sitting Bull and his band of outlaw Sioux ... must feel the superior power of the Government."  He further wrote that "during an assault, the soldiers can not pause to distinguish between male and female, or even discriminate as to age." Despite his harsh treatment of the warring tribes, Sherman spoke out against the unfair way speculators and government agents treated the natives within the "reservations.
In 1875 Sherman published his memoirs in two volumes. According to critic "Edmund Wilson, Sherman:
[H]ad a trained gift of self-expression and was, as "Mark Twain says, a master of narrative. [In his Memoirs] the vigorous account of his pre-war activities and his conduct of his military operations is varied in just the right proportion and to just the right degree of vivacity with anecdotes and personal experiences. We live through his campaigns [...] in the company of Sherman himself. He tells us what he thought and what he felt, and he never strikes any attitudes or pretends to feel anything he does not feel.
During the "election of 1876, Southern Democrats who supported "Wade Hampton for governor used mob violence to attack and intimidate "African American voters in Charleston, South Carolina. Republican Governor "Daniel Chamberlain appealed to President "Ulysses S. Grant for military assistance. In October 1876, President "Ulysses S. Grant, after issuing a proclamation, instructed Sherman to gather all available Atlantic region troops and dispatch them to South Carolina to stop the mob violence.
On June 19, 1879, Sherman delivered an address to the graduating class of the "Michigan Military Academy, in which he may have uttered the famous phrase "War Is Hell". On April 11, 1880, he addressed a crowd of more than 10,000 at Columbus, Ohio: "There is many a boy here today who looks on war as all glory, but, boys, it is all hell." In 1945, "President Harry S. Truman would say: "Sherman was wrong. I'm telling you I find peace is hell."
One of Sherman's significant contributions as head of the Army was the establishment of the Command School (now the "Command and General Staff College) at "Fort Leavenworth in 1881. Sherman stepped down as commanding general on November 1, 1883, and retired from the army on February 8, 1884.
He lived most of the rest of his life in New York City. He was devoted to the theater and to amateur painting and was much in demand as a colorful speaker at dinners and banquets, in which he indulged a fondness for quoting "Shakespeare. During this period, he stayed in contact with war veterans, and through them accepted honorary membership into the "Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity and the "Irving Literary Society. Sherman was proposed as a "Republican candidate for the "presidential election of 1884, but declined as emphatically as possible, saying, "I will not accept if nominated and will not serve if elected." Such a categorical rejection of a candidacy is now referred to as a ""Shermanesque statement."
In 1888 he joined the newly formed "Boone and Crockett Club, a wildlife conservation organization founded by "Theodore Roosevelt and "George Bird Grinnell.
Sherman died of pneumonia in New York City at 1:50 PM on February 14, 1891. President "Benjamin Harrison sent a telegram to General Sherman's family and ordered all national flags to be flown at half mast. Harrison, in a message to the Senate and the House of Representatives, wrote that:
He was an ideal soldier, and shared to the fullest the esprit du corps of the army, but he cherished the civil institutions organized under the Constitution, and was only a soldier that these might be perpetuated in undiminished usefulness and honor.
Sherman's birth family was Presbyterian and he was originally baptized as such. His foster family, including his future wife Ellen, were devout Catholics, and Sherman was re-baptized and later married in the Catholic rite. According to his son Thomas, who became a Catholic priest, Sherman attended the Catholic Church until the outbreak of the Civil War, but not thereafter. In 1888, Sherman wrote publicly that "my immediate family are strongly Catholic. I am not and cannot be." A memoirist reports that Sherman told him in 1887 that "my family is strongly Roman Catholic, but I am not."
On 19 February, a funeral service was held at his home, followed by a military procession. General "Joseph E. Johnston, the Confederate officer who had commanded the resistance to Sherman's troops in Georgia and the Carolinas, served as a "pallbearer in New York City. It was a bitterly cold day and a friend of Johnston, fearing that the general might become ill, asked him to put on his hat. Johnston famously replied: "If I were in [Sherman's] place, and he were standing in mine, he would not put on his hat." Johnston did catch a serious cold and died one month later of pneumonia.
General Sherman's body was then transported to St. Louis, where another service was conducted on 21 February 1891 at a local Catholic church. His son, "Thomas Ewing Sherman, a Jesuit priest, presided over his father's funeral mass. Sherman is buried in "Calvary Cemetery in St. Louis.
Major monuments to Sherman include the gilded bronze "Sherman Memorial (1902) by "Augustus Saint-Gaudens at the main entrance to "Central Park in New York City, and the "Sherman Monument (1903) by "Carl Rohl-Smith near "President's Park in Washington, D.C. The Sherman Monument (1900) in Muskegon, Michigan features a bronze statue by "John Massey Rhind, and the Sherman Monument (1903) in "Arlington National Cemetery features a smaller version of Saint-Gaudens's equestrian statue. Copies of Saint-Gaudens's Bust of William Tecumseh Sherman are in the "Metropolitan Museum of Art, and elsewhere.
Other posthumous tributes include "Sherman Circle in the "Petworth neighborhood of Washington, DC, the naming of the "World War II "M4 Sherman "tank, and the ""General Sherman" Giant Sequoia tree, the most massive documented single-trunk tree in the world.
"Sherman Memorial (1902), Central Park, New York City
"General William Tecumseh Sherman Monument (1903), Washington, D.C.
In the years immediately after the war, Sherman's conservative politics was attractive to white Southerners. By the 1880s, however, Southern "Lost Cause" writers began to demonize Sherman for his attacks on civilians in the "March." The Confederate Veteran magazine, based in Nashville, gave Sherman more attention than anyone else, in part to enhance the visibility of the western theater. His devastation of railroads and plantations mattered less than the March's insult to southern dignity, especially its unprotected womanhood. Moody criticizes English historians Field Marshal Viscount Garnet Wolseley, Maj. Gen. John F. C. Fuller, and especially Capt. Basil H. Liddell Hart, who built up Sherman's reputation by exaggerating his "atrocities" and filtering his actions through their ideas about modern warfare.
By contrast Sherman was a popular hero in the North and well regarded by his soldiers. Military historians have paid special attention to his Atlanta campaign and the March to the Sea, generally giving him high marks as an innovative strategist and quick-witted tactician.
Autobiography and memoirs
Around 1868, Sherman began to write a "private" recollection for his children about his life before the Civil War, identified now as his unpublished "Autobiography, 1828–1861". This manuscript is held by the "Ohio Historical Society. Much of the material in it would eventually be incorporated in revised form in his memoirs.
In 1875, ten years after the end of the Civil War, Sherman became one of the first Civil War generals to publish a memoir. His Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. By Himself, published by "D. Appleton & Co., in two volumes, began with the year 1846 (when the Mexican War began) and ended with a chapter about the "military lessons of the [civil] war" (1875 edition: Volume I; Volume II ). The memoirs were controversial, and sparked complaints from many quarters. Grant (serving as President when Sherman's memoirs first appeared) later remarked that others had told him that Sherman treated Grant unfairly but "when I finished the book, I found I approved every word; that ... it was a true book, an honorable book, creditable to Sherman, just to his companions—to myself particularly so—just such a book as I expected Sherman would write."
In 1886, after the publication of Grant's memoirs, Sherman produced a "second edition, revised and corrected" of his memoirs with Appleton. The new edition added a second preface, a chapter about his life up to 1846, a chapter concerning the post-war period (ending with his 1884 retirement from the army), several appendices, portraits, improved maps, and an index (1886 edition: Volume I, Volume II). For the most part, Sherman refused to revise his original text on the ground that "I disclaim the character of historian, but assume to be a witness on the stand before the great tribunal of history" and "any witness who may disagree with me should publish his own version of [the] facts in the truthful narration of which he is interested." However, Sherman did add the appendices, in which he published the views of some others.
Subsequently, Sherman shifted to the publishing house of Charles L. Webster & Co., the publisher of Grant's memoirs. The new publishing house brought out a "third edition, revised and corrected" in 1890. This difficult-to-find edition was substantively identical to the second (except for the probable omission of Sherman's short 1875 and 1886 prefaces).
After Sherman died in 1891, there were dueling new editions of his memoirs. His first publisher, Appleton, reissued the original (1875) edition with two new chapters about Sherman's later years added by the journalist "W. Fletcher Johnson (1891 Johnson edition: Volume I, Volume II). Meanwhile, Charles L. Webster & Co. issued a "fourth edition, revised, corrected, and complete" with the text of Sherman's second edition, a new chapter prepared under the auspices of the Sherman family bringing the general's life from his retirement to his death and funeral, and an appreciation by politician "James G. Blaine (who was related to Sherman's wife). Unfortunately, this edition omits Sherman's prefaces to the 1875 and 1886 editions (1891 Blaine edition: Volume I, Volume II).
In 1904 and 1913, Sherman's youngest son (Philemon Tecumseh Sherman) republished the memoirs, ironically with Appleton (not Charles L. Webster & Co.). This was designated as a "second edition, revised and corrected". This edition contains Sherman's two prefaces, his 1886 text, and the materials added in the 1891 Blaine edition. Thus, this virtually invisible edition of Sherman's memoirs is actually the most comprehensive version.
There are many modern editions of Sherman's memoirs. The edition most useful for research purposes is the 1990 Library of America version, edited by Charles Royster. It contains the entire text of Sherman's 1886 edition, together with annotations, a note on the text, and a detailed chronology of Sherman's life. Missing from this edition is the useful biographical material contained in the 1891 Johnson and Blaine editions.
Many of Sherman's official war-time letters (and other items) appear in the Official Records of the War of the Rebellion. Some of these letters are rather personal in nature, rather than relating directly to operational activities of the army. There also are at least five published collections of Sherman correspondence:
- Sherman's Civil War: Selected Correspondence of William T. Sherman, 1860–1865, edited by Brooks D. Simpson and Jean V. Berlin (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1999) – a large collection of war-time letters (November 1860 to May 1865).
- Sherman at War, edited by Joseph H. Ewing (Dayton, OH: Morningside, 1992) – approximately thirty war time letters to Sherman's father-in-law, Thomas Ewing, and one of his brothers-in-law, Philemon B. Ewing.
- Home Letters of General Sherman, edited by M.A. DeWolfe Howe (New York: Charles Scribner's Son, 1909) – edited letters to his wife, Ellen Ewing Sherman, from 1837 to 1888.
- The Sherman Letters: Correspondence Between General Sherman and Senator Sherman from 1837 to 1891, edited by Rachel Sherman Thorndike (New York: Charles Scribner's Son, 1894) – edited letters to his brother, Senator John Sherman, from 1837 to 1891.
- General W.T. Sherman as College President, edited by Walter L. Fleming (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Co., 1912) – edited letters and other documents from Sherman's 1859–1861 service as superintendent of the Louisiana Seminary of Learning and Military Academy.
In popular culture
The presentation of Sherman in popular culture is now discussed at book-length in Sherman's March in Myth and Memory (Rowman and Littlefield, 2008), by Edward Caudill and Paul Ashdown. Some of the artistic treatments of Sherman's march are the Civil War era song ""Marching Through Georgia" by "Henry Clay Work; "Herman Melville's poem "The March to the Sea"; "Ross McElwee's film "Sherman's March; and "E. L. Doctorow's novel "The March.
At the beginning of "Margaret Mitchell's novel "Gone with the Wind, first published in 1936, the fictional character "Rhett Butler warns a group of upper-class secessionists of the folly of war with the North in terms very reminiscent of those Sherman directed to "David F. Boyd before leaving Louisiana. Sherman's invasion of Georgia later plays a central role in the plot of the novel.
"Charles Beaumont in the "Twilight Zone episode ""Long Live Walter Jameson" has the lead character (a history professor) comment on the burning of Atlanta that the union soldiers did it unwillingly at the behest of a Sherman described as sullen and brutish.
Sherman is a principal character in Chelsea Quinn Yarbro's vampire novel In the Face of Death.
Sherman does not directly appear but is mentioned in alternate history novelist Harry Turtledove's 1992 book "The Guns of the South.
Sherman appears in another Turtledove novel, the 1997 book "How Few Remain.
In the "Academy Award winning "Errol Morris documentary "The Fog of War, "Robert McNamara recalls an anecdote he read about Sherman during the "Civil War, in which the mayor of Atlanta pleaded with Sherman for mercy before he torched the city to the ground, to which Sherman responded, "War is cruelty." McNamara uses the story as a parallel to the usage of "Agent Orange during the "Vietnam War, while he was "Secretary of Defense, to illustrate the ninth lesson of the film: "In order to do good, you may have to engage in evil."
Sherman on U.S. postage
Sherman is one of the few generals to have appeared on several different US postage stamp issues. The first stamp issue to honor him was released on March 21, 1893, a little more than two years after his death. The engraving was modeled after a ""photograph taken by "Napoleon Sarony in 1888. The Post Office released a second and third Sherman issue of 1895, both almost identical to the first issue, with slight changes in the framework design and color. Sherman appeared again in the ""US Army issue of 1937, a commemorative postage stamp jointly honoring Generals Sherman, "Grant and "Sheridan. The last stamp issue to honor Sherman was released in 1995 and was a 32-cent stamp. With five different issues to his name, Sherman has featured more prominently in US postage than most US presidents.
Sherman name in the military
Sherman lent his name to the "Sherman tank. The USS "General Sherman, a Civil War gunboat, was also named after him as was "Fort Sherman.
Dates of rank
- "Second lieutenant, "USA – July 1840
- "First lieutenant, USA – November 1841
- "Captain, USA – September 1850
- "Colonel, USA – 14 May 1861
- "Brigadier general, of "Volunteers – 17 May 1861
- "Major general of Volunteers – 1 May 1862
- "Brigadier general, USA – 4 July 1863
- "Major general, USA – 12 August 1864
- "Lieutenant general, USA – 25 July 1866
- "General, USA – 4 March 1869
- General Sherman's Official Account of His Great March to Georgia and the Carolinas, from His Departure from Chattanooga to the Surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston and Confederate Forces under His Command (1865)
- "Autobiography, 1828–1861" (c. 1868), Mss. 57, WTS Papers, Ohio Historical Society. Private recollections for Sherman's children.
- Memoirs of General William T. Sherman, Written by Himself (1875), 2d ed. with additional chapters (1886)
- Reports of Inspection Made in the Summer of 1877 by Generals P. H. Sheridan and W. T. Sherman of Country North of the Union Pacific Railroad (co-author, 1878)
- The Sherman Letters: Correspondence between General and Senator Sherman from 1837 to 1891 (posthumous, 1894)
- Home Letters of General Sherman (posthumous, 1909)
- General W. T. Sherman as College President: A Collection of Letters, Documents, and Other Material, Chiefly from Private Sources, Relating to the Life and Activities of General William Tecumseh Sherman, to the Early Years of Louisiana State University, and the Stirring Conditions Existing in the South on the Eve of the Civil War (posthumous, 1912)
- The William Tecumseh Sherman Family Letters (posthumous, 1967). Microfilm collection prepared by the Archives of the University of Notre Dame contains letters, etc. from Sherman, his wife, and others.
- Sherman at War (posthumous, 1992)
- Sherman's Civil War: Selected Correspondence of William T. Sherman, 1860–1865 (posthumous, 1999)
- One historian has written that Sherman's "genius" for "strategy and logistics ... made him one of the foremost architects of Union victory." Steven E. Woodworth, Nothing but Victory: The Army of the Tennessee, 1861–1865 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005), 631. For a very critical study of Sherman, see John B. Walters, Merchant of Terror: General Sherman and Total War (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973).
- Liddell Hart, p. 430.
- See, William T. Sherman papers, Notre Dame University CSHR 19/67 Folder:Roger Sherman's Watch 1932–1942
- McDonough, William Tecumseh Sherman: in the service of my country, A Life, p148-149
- One 19th-century source, for example, states that "General Sherman, we believe, is the only eminent American named from an Indian chief."Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio (Columbus, 1890), I:595.
- Sherman, Memoirs, p. 11.
- Lewis, p. 34.
- Sherman, Memoirs, p. 11; Lewis, p. 23; Schenker, "'My Father ... Named Me William Tecumseh': Rebutting the Charge That General Sherman Lied About His Name," Ohio History (2008), vol. 115, p. 55; Sherman biographer John Marszalek considers the cited article to "present a convincing case regarding Sherman's name". Marszalek, "Preface" to 2007 edition of Sherman: A Soldier's Passion for Order, pp. xiv–xv n.1.
- See, e.g., the many Civil War letters reproduced in Brooks D. Simpson and Jean V. Berlin, Sherman's Civil War: Selected Correspondence of William T. Sherman (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1999).
- See, for instance, Walsh, p. 32.
- Sherman, Memoirs, p. 14
- Quoted in Hirshson, p. 13
- Sherman, Memoirs, p. 16
- See, for instance, Hirshson, p. 21
- See Sherman at the Virtual Museum of San Francisco and excerpts from Sherman's Memoirs
- Kevin Dougherty, Civil War Leadership and Mexican War Experience, (Jackson, MS: University of Mississippi Press, 2007), pp. 96–100. "ISBN 1-57806-968-8
- Katherine Burton, Three Generations: Maria Boyle Ewing – Ellen Ewing Sherman – Minnie Sherman Fitch (Longmans, Green & Co., 1947), pp. 72–78.
- "Edward Sorin, CSC, The Chronicles of Notre Dame Du Lac ed. James T. Connelly, CSC (Notre Dame: Notre Dame Press, 1992), 289.
- Burton, pp. 217–21, 226–27, 291.
- See, for instance, Hirshson, pp. 362–368, 387
- Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 125–129.
- Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 131–134, 166.
- Quoted in Royster, pp. 133–134
- Memoirs, chronology, p. 1093.
- Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 150–61. For details about Sherman's banking career, see Dwight L. Clarke, William Tecumseh Sherman: Gold Rush Banker (San Francisco: California Historical Society, 1969).
- Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 160–62.
- See History of LSU. Archived March 10, 2009, at the "Wayback Machine.
- Quoted in Hirshson, p. 68.
- Bassett, Thom (2012-01-17). "Sherman's Southern Sympathies". The New York Times. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- Exchange between W.T. Sherman and Prof. David F. Boyd, December 24, 1860. Quoted in "Sherman: Fighting Prophet" (1932) by Lloyd Lewis, page 138, attributed to "Boyd (D.F), mss. [manuscripts] in possession of Walter L. Fleming, Nashville, Tenn." Fleming's collection is now in the archives of Louisiana State University.
- Lloyd Lewis (1993) . Sherman: Fighting Prophet. U of Nebraska Press. p. 138. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
- "Department of Military Science: Unit History". LSU Army ROTC. Retrieved 2016-03-07.
- Letter by W.T. Sherman to Gov. Thomas O. Moore, January 18, 1861. Quoted in Sherman, Memoirs, p. 156
- Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 184–86; see Marszalek, pp. 140–41.
- Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 186–89.
- Samuel M. Bowman and Richard B. Irwin, Sherman and His Campaigns (New York, 1865), 25.
- Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 189–90; Hirshson, pp. 83–86.
- WTS to Thomas Ewing Jr., June 3, 1861, in Sherman and Berlin 97–98.
- WTS 1861 Diary, University of Notre Dame Archives, microfilm roll 12, 0333, 0355.
- Sherman, Memoirs, p. 200.
- See, e.g., Hirshson, pp. 90–94, 109.
- Sherman, Memoirs, p. 216; see also p. 210: In Washington, after Bull Run, Sherman explained to Lincoln "my extreme desire to serve in a subordinate capacity, and in no event to be left in a superior command. He promised me this with promptness, making the jocular remark that his chief trouble was to find places for the too many generals who wanted to be at the head of affairs, to command armies, etc."
- For more detailed discussion of this overall period, see Marszalek, Sherman, pp. 154–67; Hirshson, White Tecumseh, pp. 95–105; Kennett, Sherman, pp. 127–49.
- Sherman to George B. McClellan, November 4, 1861, in Stephen W. Sears, ed., The Civil War Papers of George B. McClellan: Selected Correspondence, 1861–1865 (New York, 1989), p. 127, note 1; Marszalek, Sherman, pp. 161–64.
- Quoted in Lewis, p. 203.
- Sherman to John Sherman, January 4, 8, 1862, in Simpson and Berlin, Sherman's Civil War, 174, 176.
- See Cincinnati Commercial, December 11, 1861; Marszalek, Sherman, pp. 162, 164.
- At one point, Halleck suggested to General-in-Chief McClellan that Sherman be given command of an expedition on the Cumberland River (on which Fort Donelson was located), but Secretary of War "Edwin M. Stanton objected, telling Lincoln that any "expedition ... will prove disastrous under the charge of General Sherman". Kennett, pp. 155–56, quoting EMS to AL, February 14, 1862.
- WTS to USG, February 15, 1862, Papers of Ulysses S. Grant 4:216n; see Smith, pp. 151–52.
- Eicher, p. 485
- Daniel, p. 138
- Quoted in Walsh, pp. 77–78
- Smith, Grant, p. 212: Schenker, "Ulysses in His Tent," passim.
- Marszalek, Sherman, pp. 188–201.
- Daniel, pp. 309–10.
- Whitelaw Reid, Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen, Her Generals, and Soldiers (New York, 1868), 1:387.
- See Marszalek, Sherman, pp. 202–08. Sherman's operations were supposed to be coordinated with an advance on Vicksburg by Grant from another direction. Unbeknownst to Sherman, Grant abandoned his advance. "As a result, [Sherman's] river expedition ran into more than they bargained for." Smith, Grant, p. 224.
- Smith, p. 227. It should be noted, however, that Sherman had targeted Arkansas Post independently and considered the operation there worthwhile. See Marszalek, pp. 208–10; Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 318–25.
- To wit: an invading army may separate from its supply train and subsist by foraging. Smith, pp. 235–36
- "John D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana, "Baton Rouge: "Louisiana State University Press, 1963, "ISBN 0-8071-0834-0, p. 176
- Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 370–75.
- McPherson, pp. 677–80.
- Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 406–34; Buck T. Foster, Sherman's Meridian Campaign (University of Alabama Press, 2006).
- Sherman, Memoirs, p. 589
- McPherson, p. 653
- Sherman, Memoirs, p. 576. The nomination was not submitted to the Senate until December. Eicher, p. 702.
- For extended discussion of Lincoln's reelection prospects and the effect of Sherman's capture of Atlanta, see James M. McPherson, Tried by War: Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief (New York: Penguin, 2008), 231–50.
- For a good discussion, see Russell S. Bonds, War Like the Thunderbolt: The Battle and Burning of Atlanta (Yardley, PA: Westholme Publishing, 2009), 337–74.
- Telegram W.T. Sherman to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, October 9, 1864, reproduced in Sherman's Civil War, p. 731.
- Faunt Le Roy Senour, Major General William T. Sherman, and His Campaigns (Chicago, 1865), 293; see also Hirshson, White Tecumseh, pp. 246–47, 431 n.23.
- W.T. Sherman to Gen. U.S. Grant, November 1, 1864, reproduced in Sherman's Civil War, pp. 746–47.
- Report by Maj. Gen. W.T. Sherman, January 1, 1865, quoted in Grimsley, p. 200
- History Channel.
- Sherman, Memoirs, p. 693.
- This message was put on a vessel on December 22, passed on by telegram from Fort Monroe, Virginia, and apparently received by Lincoln on Christmas Day itself. Sherman, Memoirs, p. 711; Official Records, Series I, vol. 44, 783; New York Times, December 26, 1864.
- See, for instance, Liddell Hart, p. 354
- Brockett, p. 175 (p. 162 in 1865 edition).
- Marszalek, Sherman, p. 311.
- John F. Marszalek, "'Take the Seat of Honor': William T. Sherman," in Steven E. Woodworth, ed., Grant's Lieutenants: From Chattanooga to Appomattox (Lawrence: Univ. of Kansas Press, 2008), pp. 5, 17–18; Marszalek, Sherman, pp. 320–21.
- Jacob D. Cox, Military Reminiscences of the Civil War (1900), vol. 2, 531–32; Jacob D. Cox, The March to the Sea (1882), p. 168; Johnston is also quoted in McPherson, p. 828.
- Marszalek, pp. 322–25.
- Lewis, p. 513.
- Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 806–17; Donald C. Pfanz, The Petersburg Campaign: Abraham Lincoln at City Point (Lynchburg, VA, 1989), 1–2, 24–29, 94–95. This meeting was memorialized in G.P.A. Healy's famous painting The Peacemakers
- See, for instance, Johnston's Surrender at Bennett Place on Hillsboro Road
- Sherman, William Tecumseh (10 May 1999). "Letter to Salmon P. Chase, January 11, 1865". In Simpson, Brooks D.; Berlin, Jean V. Sherman's Civil War. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 794–795.
- "B. H. Liddell Hart (1929). "Letter by W.T. Sherman to John Sherman, August 1865". Sherman: Soldier, Realist, American. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co. p. 406.
- Sherman to Halleck, Sept. 4, 1864, Civil War Official Records Vol. 38 part 5, pp. 792–793.
- See, for instance, Sherman, Memoirs, vol. II, p. 247.
- "Sherman meets the colored ministers in Savannah". Civilwarhome.com. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Special Field Orders, No. 15, January 16, 1865. See also McPherson, pp. 737–739
- Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 728–29, quoting a December 30, 1864 letter from Henry W. Halleck.
- Sherman, Memoirs, p. 729.
- Sherman, Memoirs, 2d ed., ch. XXII, p. 729 (Lib. of America, 1990).
- Liddell Hart, foreword to the Indiana University Press's edition of Sherman's Memoirs (1957). Quoted in Wilson, p. 179
- Hirshson, p. 393, quoting B.H. Liddell Hart, "Notes on Two Discussions with Patton, 1944", February 20, 1948, GSP Papers, box 6, USMA Library.
- See, for instance, Grimsley, pp. 190–204; McPherson, pp. 712–714, 727–729.
- See, for instance, Grimsley, p. 199
- Hitchcock, p. 125
- See, for instance, Grimsley, pp. 200–202.
- See Edwin J. Scott, Random Recollections of a Long Life, page 185; Wade Hampton [?], The Burning of Columbia, Charleston, SC, 1888, page 11.
- December 11, 1872 deposition, Mixed Commission, XIV, 91, quoted in Marion B. Lucas, Sherman and the Burning of Columbia (University of South Carolina Press, 2000), p. 154.
- Sherman, Memoirs, p. 767.
- McPherson, pp. 728–729.
- Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 838–39; Woodworth, Nothing but Victory, p. 636.
- Letter by Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, USA, to the Mayor and City Council of Atlanta, September 12, 1864
- Wilson, p. 184
- McNamara and Blight, p. 130
- Giliomee, p. 253
- Quoted in Liddell Hart, p. 402. This letter was to James E. Yeatman, May 21, 1865, and is excerpted more extensively (and with slight variations) in Bowman and Irwin, pp. 486–88.
- Athearn, 33–44
- Sherman to Rawlins, October 23, 1865, quoted in Athearn, 24; Sherman to Grant, May 28, 1867, quoted in Fellman, Citizen Sherman, 264 & 453 n.5 (see also Papers of Ulysses S. Grant, Vol. 17, p. 262).
- Sherman to Grant, December 28, 1866, reproduced in Wild Life on the Plains and Horrors of Indian Warfare (1891), 120.
- Athearn, 196–197
- Athearn, 203
- Athearn, 268–269
- Fernández-Armesto, Felipe (2014). Our America: A Hispanic History of the United States. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 178.
- Ingham, Donna (2010). Mysteries and Legends of Texas: True Stories of the Unsolved and Unexplained. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 35.
- Athearn, 291
- Seemingly Sherman to Tappan, July 21, 1876, quoted in Marszalek, Sherman: A Soldier's Passion, 398.
- Seemingly Sherman to Herbert A. Preston, April 17, 1873, quoted in Marszalek, Sherman: A Soldier's Passion, 379.
- See, for instance, Lewis, pp. 597–600.
- Wilson, p. 175
- Brands (2012), The Man Who Saved the Union Ulysses S. Grant In War and Peace , p. 570
- Fred R. Shapiro and Joseph Epstein, eds., The Yale Book of Quotations (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), 708.
- From transcript published in the Ohio State Journal, August 12, 1880, reproduced in Lewis, p. 637.
- Richard S. Kirkendall, ed., Harry's Farewell: Interpreting and Teaching the Truman Presidency (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1880), 63.
- See, for instance, Woodward
- Marszalek in Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, p. 1769.
- "Boone and Crockett Club Archives".
- BENJAMIN HARRISON. "SORROW AT THE CAPITAL :FORMAL ANNOUNCEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT – EULOGIES IN THE SENATE.. " New York Times (1857–1922) 15 Feb. 1891,ProQuest Historical Newspapers New York Times (1851–2008) w/ Index (1851–1993), ProQuest. Web. 31 Mar. 2012.
- Hirshson, pp. 387–388. At the time of Sherman's death, his son Thomas, a Jesuit, reportedly said: "My father was baptized in the Catholic Church, married in the Catholic Church, and attended the Catholic Church until the outbreak of the civil war. Since that time he has not been a communicant of any church." See Thomas C. Fletcher, Life and Reminiscences of General Wm. T. Sherman by Distinguished Men of His Time (Baltimore: R.H. Woodward Co., 1891), 139.
- See "Hon. James G. Blaine," North American Review 147, no. 385 (Dec. 1888): 616, 624.
- Edward W. Bok, The Americanization of Edward Bok (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1920), 215.
- See, for instance, Lewis, p. 652; Marszalek, pp. 495–98.
- "SHERMAN, William Tecumseh: Monument (ca. 1903) in Sherman Square near the Treasury Dept. in Washington, D.C. by Carl Rohl-Smith located in James M. Goode's The Ellipse area".
- Bust of Sherman, from SIRIS.
- The U.S. M4 tank was first given the service name General Sherman by the British
- Wesley Moody, Demon of the Lost Cause: Sherman and Civil War History (University of Missouri Press; 2011)
- Edward Caudill and Paul Ashdown, Sherman's March in Myth and Memory (2009)
- Marszalek, p. 461.
- Marszalek, p. 463. In 1875, Henry V. Boynton published a critical book-length review of Sherman's memoirs "based upon compilations from the records of the war office". This led to the publication of a defense of Sherman by C.W. Moulton.
- Extract from John Russell Young, Around the World with General Grant, vol. II, 290–91, quoted in Sherman, Memoirs (Library of America ed., 1990), p. 1054.
- 1886 Preface. In one amusing change to his text, Sherman dropped the assertion that "John Sutter, of gold-rush fame, had become "very 'tight'" at a Fourth of July celebration in 1848 and stated instead that Sutter "was enthusiastic". Sherman, Memoirs (Library of America ed., 1990), Note on the Text, p. 1123; H.W. Brands, The Age of Gold (Doubleday, 2002), p. 271.
- Sherman, Memoirs (Library of America ed., 1990), Note on the Text, p. 1123.
- Morris, Errol (Director) (Dec 19, 2003). The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the life of Robert S. MacNamara (Motion picture). Los Angeles, CA: The Weinstein Company.
- Scott's US Stamp Catalogue
- Athearn, Robert G., William Tecumseh Sherman and the Settlement of the West, University of Oklahoma Press, 1956, "ISBN 978-0-80612-769-9.
- Bonds, Russell S., War Like the Thunderbolt: The Battle and Burning of Atlanta, Westholme Publishing, 2009, "ISBN 978-1-59416-100-1.
- Bowman, Samuel M. and Richard B. Irwin, Sherman and His Campaigns (New York, 1865).
- Brockett, L.P., Our Great Captains: Grant, Sherman, Thomas, Sheridan, and Farragut, C.B. Richardson, 1866.
- Clarke, Dwight L., William Tecumseh Sherman: Gold Rush Banker, California Historical Society, 1969.
- Daniel, Larry J., Shiloh: The Battle That Changed the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 1997, "ISBN 0-684-80375-5.
- Detzler, Jack J., «The Religion of William Tecumseh Sherman», Ohio History (Columbus, Ohio). Vol. 75, no. 1 (Winter 1966), p. 26–34.
- Eicher, John H., and "Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, "ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- Giliomee, Hermann, The Afrikaners: Biography of a People, University Press of Virginia, 2003, "ISBN 0-8139-2237-2.
- Grimsley, Mark, The Hard Hand of War: Union Military Policy toward Southern Civilians, 1861–1865, Cambridge University Press, 1997, "ISBN 0-521-59941-5.
- "Hanson, Victor D., The Soul of Battle, Anchor Books, 1999, "ISBN 0-385-72059-9.
- Hirshson, Stanley P., The White Tecumseh: A Biography of General William T. Sherman, John Wiley & Sons, 1997, "ISBN 0-471-28329-0.
- Hitchcock, Henry, Marching with Sherman: Passages from the Letters and Campaign Diaries of Henry Hitchcock, Major and Assistant Adjutant General of Volunteers, November 1864 – May 1865, ed. M.A. DeWolfe Howe, Yale University Press, 1927. Reprinted in 1995 by the University of Nebraska Press, "ISBN 0-8032-7276-6.
- Isenberg, Andrew C., The Destruction of the Bison, Cambridge University Press, 2000, "ISBN 0-521-00348-2.
- W. Fletcher Johnson, Life of Wm. Tecumseh Sherman, Late General, U.S.A. (1891) Useful 19th century biography.
- Kennett, Lee, Sherman: A Soldier's Life, HarperCollins, 2001, "ISBN 0-06-017495-1.
- Lewis, Lloyd, Sherman: Fighting Prophet, Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1932. Reprinted in 1993 by the University of Nebraska Press, "ISBN 0-8032-7945-0.
- "Liddell Hart, B. H., Sherman: Soldier, Realist, American, Dodd, Mead & Co., 1929. Reprinted in 1993 by Da Capo Press, "ISBN 0-306-80507-3.
- "Marszalek, John F., Sherman: A Soldier's Passion for Order, Free Press, 1992, "ISBN 0-02-920135-7; "reissued with new preface", Southern Illinois University Press, 2007.
- Marszalek, John F., «William Tecumseh Sherman», Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds., W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, "ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
- McDonough, James Lee, William Tecumseh Sherman: In the Service of My Country, A Life, W. W. Norton & Company, 2016, "ISBN 978-0-393-24157-0. online review
- "McNamara, Robert S. and Blight, James G., Wilson's Ghost: Reducing the Risk of Conflict, Killing, and Catastrophe in the 21st Century, Public Affairs, 2001, "ISBN 1-891620-89-4.
- "McPherson, James M., "Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, illustrated ed., Oxford University Press, 2003, "ISBN 0-19-515901-2.
- Moody, Wesley. Demon of the Lost Cause: Sherman and Civil War History (University of Missouri Press; 2011) 208 pp; Traces Sherman's shifting reputation as shaped by Lost Cause historians, enemies in the North, and Sherman himself.
- O'Connell, Robert L. Fierce Patriot: The Tangled Lives of William Tecumseh Sherman (2014) online review
- Royster, Charles, The Destructive War: William Tecumseh Sherman, Stonewall Jackson, and the Americans, Alfred A. Knopf, 1991, "ISBN 0-679-73878-9.
- Schenker, Carl R., Jr., "'My Father…Named Me William Tecumseh': Rebutting the Charge That General Sherman Lied About His Name", Ohio History (2008), vol. 115, p. 55.
- Schenker, Carl R., Jr., "Ulysses in His Tent: Halleck, Grant, Sherman, and The Turning Point of the War", Civil War History (June 2010), vol. 56, no. 2, p. 175.
- Sherman's Civil War: Selected Correspondence of William T. Sherman,1860–1865, eds. Brooks D. Simpson and J.V. Berlin, University of North Carolina Press, 1999, "ISBN 0-8078-2440-2.
- Sherman, William T., Memoirs of General W.T. Sherman, 2nd ed., D. Appleton & Co., 1913 (1889). Reprinted by the "Library of America, 1990, "ISBN 978-0-940450-65-3.
- «William Tecumseh Sherman», A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography, Vol. II (1988), p. 741.
- "Smith, Jean Edward, Grant, Simon and Schuster, 2001, "ISBN 0-684-84927-5.
- Walsh, George, Whip the Rebellion, Forge Books, 2005, "ISBN 0-7653-0526-7.
- Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, LSU Press, 1964, "ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
- "Wilson, Edmund, Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1962. Reprinted by W. W. Norton & Co., 1994, "ISBN 0-393-31256-9.
- "Woodward, C. Vann, «Civil Warriors», "New York Review of Books, vol. 37, no. 17, November 8, 1990.
- "Woodworth, Steven E., Nothing but Victory: The Army of the Tennessee, 1861–1865, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.
- "Woodworth, Steven E., Sherman: Lessons in Leadership, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, "ISBN 978-0-230-62062-9. Part of the 'Great Generals' series.
- Carr, Matthew (2015). Sherman's Ghosts: Soldiers, Civilians, and the American Way of War. The New Press. "ISBN "9781595589552. "OCLC 884815509.
- McDonough, James Lee (2016). William Tecumseh Sherman: In the Service of My Country: A Life. W.W. Norton & Company. "ISBN "9780393241570. "OCLC 939911299.
|"Library resources about
William Tecumseh Sherman
|""||Wikiquote has quotations related to: William Tecumseh Sherman|
|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to William Tecumseh Sherman.|
- "" Texts on Wikisource:
- "General Sherman". Eulogy before the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York by "Carl Schurz
- "Sherman, William Tecumseh". "Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900.
- "Sherman, William Tecumseh". "The Nuttall Encyclopædia. 1907.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sherman, William Tecumseh". "Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Works by William Tecumseh Sherman at "Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about William Tecumseh Sherman at "Internet Archive
- Works by William Tecumseh Sherman at "LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- William Tecumseh Sherman, Memoirs of General William T. Sherman, Volume 1 reprinted 1917. (books.google) (sonofthesouth.net) (tufts.edu)
- Sherman Genealogy Including Families of Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk, England By Thomas Townsend Sherman
- William T. Sherman Family papers from the University of Notre Dame
- Sherman House Museum, at Sherman's birthplace in Lancaster, Ohio
- Letters between William Sherman and his brother, Senator John Sherman
- Sherman Thackara Collection - "Villanova University
- William Tecumseh Sherman Collection - Missouri History Museum
- Military Orders of General William T. Sherman, 1861–'65 Substantial collection
- Who Burnt Columbia?: Official Depositions..., Columbia, South Carolina : Walker, Evans & Cogswell, printers, 1873
- William T. Sherman Personal Letter
- St. Louis Walk of Fame
- Sherman's Profile in Commanding generals and chiefs of staff, 1775-2005 - "United States Army Center of Military History
- William T. Sherman's First Campaign of Destruction by Buck T. Foster
- General William Tecumseh Sherman in Georgia
- Army of Georgia Historical Society
"Ulysses S. Grant
|Commander of the "Army of the Tennessee
"James B. McPherson
|Commander of the "Military Division of the Mississippi
|Commander of the "Military Division of the Missouri
"Philip H. Sheridan
"Ulysses S. Grant
|"Commanding General of the United States Army