Although women were allowed to vote in some prefectures in 1880, women's suffrage was enacted at a national level in 1945.
When voting was first introduced in Kuwait in 1985, Kuwaiti women had the "right to vote. The right was later removed. In May 2005, the "Kuwaiti parliament re-granted female suffrage.
"Pakistan was part of "British Raj until 1947, when it "became independent. Women received full suffrage in 1947. "Muslim women leaders from all classes actively supported the Pakistan movement in the mid-1940s. Their movement was led by wives and other relatives of leading politicians. Women were sometimes organized into large-scale public demonstrations. In November 1988, "Benazir Bhutto became the first Muslim woman to be elected as Prime Minister of a Muslim country.
Suffrage for "Filipinas was achieved following an all-female, "special plebiscite held on 30 April 1937. 447,725—some ninety percent—voted in favour of women's suffrage against 44,307 who voted no. In compliance with the "1935 Constitution, the "National Assembly passed a law which extending the right of suffrage to women, which remains to this day.
In late September 2011, "King "Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud declared that women would be able to vote and run for office "starting in 2015. That applies to the municipal councils, which are the kingdom's only semi-elected bodies. Half of the seats on municipal councils are elective, and the councils have few powers. The council elections have been held since 2005 (the first time they were held before that was the 1960s). Saudi women did first vote and first run for office in December 2015, for those councils. "Salma bint Hizab al-Oteibi became the first elected female politician in Saudi Arabia in December 2015, when she won a seat on the council in Madrakah in Mecca province. In all, the December 2015 election in Saudi Arabia resulted in twenty women being elected to municipal councils.
The king declared in 2011 that women would be eligible to be appointed to the "Shura Council, an unelected body that issues advisory opinions on national policy. '"This is great news," said Saudi writer and women's rights activist "Wajeha al-Huwaider. "Women's voices will finally be heard. Now it is time to remove other barriers like not allowing "women to drive cars and not being able to function, to live a normal life without male guardians."' "Robert Lacey, author of two books about the kingdom, said, "This is the first positive, progressive speech out of the government since the "Arab Spring.... First the warnings, then the payments, now the beginnings of solid reform." The king made the announcement in a five-minute speech to the Shura Council. In January 2013, "King Abdullah issued two royal decrees, granting women thirty seats on the council, and stating that women must always hold at least a fifth of the seats on the council. According to the decrees, the female council members must be "committed to Islamic Shariah disciplines without any violations" and be "restrained by the religious veil." The decrees also said that the female council members would be entering the council building from special gates, sit in seats reserved for women and pray in special worshipping places. Earlier, officials said that a screen would separate genders and an internal communications network would allow men and women to communicate. Women first joined the council in 2013, occupying thirty seats. There are two Saudi royal women among these thirty female members of the assembly, "Sara bint Faisal Al Saud and "Moudi bint Khalid Al Saud. Furthermore, in 2013 three women were named as deputy chairpersons of three committees: Thurayya Obeid was named deputy chairwoman of the human rights and petitions committee, Zainab Abu Talib, deputy chairwoman of the information and cultural committee, and Lubna Al Ansari, deputy chairwoman of the health affairs and environment committee.
"Sri Lanka (at that time Ceylon) was one of the first Asian countries to allow voting rights to women over the age of 21 without any restrictions. Since then, women have enjoyed a significant presence in the "Sri Lankan political arena. The zenith of this favourable condition to women has been the 1960 July General Elections, in which Ceylon elected the world's first woman "Prime Minister, "Sirimavo Bandaranaike. Her daughter, "Chandrika Kumaratunga also became the Prime Minister later in 1994, and the same year she was elected as the "Executive President of Sri Lanka, making her the fourth woman in the world to hold the portfolio.
It was only after the breakdown of the "Habsburg Monarchy, that "Austria would grant the general, equal, direct and secret right to vote to all citizens, regardless of sex, in 1919.
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A revision of the constitution in October 1921 (it changed art. 47 of the "Constitution of Belgium of 1831) introduced the general right to vote according to the "one man, one vote" principle. Art. 47 allowed widows of World War I to vote at the national level as well. The introduction of women's suffrage was already put onto the agenda at the time, by means of including an article in the constitution that allowed approval of women's suffrage by "special law (meaning it needed a 2/3 majority to pass). This happened in March 1948. In Belgium, voting is compulsory but not enforced.
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In the former "Bohemia, taxpaying women and women in "learned profession[s]" were allowed to vote by proxy and made eligible to the legislative body in 1864. The first Czech female MP was elected to the Diet of Bohemia in 1912. Women were guaranteed equal voting rights by The constitution of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1920.
In Denmark, the "Danish Women's Society (DK) debated, and informally supported, women's suffrage from 1884, but it did not support it publicly until in 1887, when it supported the suggestion of the parliamentarian "Fredrik Bajer to grant women municipal suffrage. In 1886, in response to the perceived overcautious attitude of DK in the question of women suffrage, "Matilde Bajer founded the Kvindelig Fremskridtsforening (or KF, 1886-1904) to deal exclusively with the right to suffrage, both in municipal and national elections, and it 1887, the Danish women publicly demanded the right for women's suffrage for the first time through the KF. However, as the KF was very much involved with worker's rights and pacifist activity, the question of women's suffrage was in fact not given full attention, which led to the establishment of the strictly women's suffrage movement Kvindevalgretsforeningen (1889-1897). In 1890, the KF and the Kvindevalgretsforeningen united with five women's trade worker's unions to found the De samlede Kvindeforeninger, and through this form, an active women's suffrage campaign was arranged through agitation and demonstration. However, after having been met by compact resistance, the Danish suffrage movement almost discontinued with the dissolution of the De samlede Kvindeforeninger in 1893.
In 1898, an "umbrella organization, the Danske Kvindeforeningers Valgretsforbund or DKV was founded and became a part of the "International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA). In 1907, the "Landsforbundet for Kvinders Valgret (LKV) was founded by "Elna Munch, "Johanne Rambusch and Marie Hjelmer in reply to what they considered to be the much too careful attitude of the "Danish Women's Society. The LKV originated from a local suffrage association in Copenhagen, and like its rival LKV, it successfully organized other such local associations nationally.
Women won the right to vote in municipal elections on April 20, 1908. However it was not until June 5, 1915 that they were allowed to vote in "Rigsdag elections.
Estonia gained its independence in 1918 with the "Estonian War of Independence. However, the first official elections were held in 1917. These were the elections of temporary council (i.e. Maapäev), which ruled Estonia from 1917–1919. Since then, women have had the right to vote.
The parliament elections were held in 1920. After the elections, two women got into the parliament – history teacher "Emma Asson and journalist Alma Ostra-Oinas. Estonian parliament is called "Riigikogu and during the First Republic of Estonia it used to have 100 seats.
The area that in 1809 became Finland was a group of integral provinces of the "Kingdom of Sweden for over 600 years. Thus, women in Finland were allowed to vote during the Swedish "Age of Liberty (1718–1772), during which suffrage was granted to tax-paying female members of "guilds.
The predecessor state of modern "Finland, the "Grand Principality of Finland, was part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917 and enjoyed a high degree of "autonomy. In 1863, taxpaying women were granted municipal suffrage in the country side, and in 1872, the same reform was given to the cities.
The 21 April 1944 ordinance of the "French Committee of National Liberation, confirmed in October 1944 by the "French provisional government, extended suffrage to French women. The first elections with female participation were the municipal elections of 29 April 1945 and the "parliamentary elections of 21 October 1945. "Indigenous "Muslim" women in "French Algeria had to wait until a 3 July 1958 decree.
Women were granted the right to vote and be elected from the 12th November 1918.
In Greece, women over 18 voted for the first time in April 1944 for the "National Council, a legislative body set up by the "National Liberation Front "resistance movement. Ultimately, women won the legal right to vote and run for office on May 28, 1952. The first woman MP was "Eleni Skoura, who was elected in 1953.
In "Italy, women's suffrage was not introduced following "World War I, but upheld by "Socialist and "Fascist activists and partly introduced by "Benito Mussolini's government in 1925. In April 1945, the provisional government decreed the enfranchisement of women allowing for the immediate appointment of women to public office, of which the first was Elena Fischli Dreher. In the "1946 election, all Italians simultaneously voted for the Constituent Assembly and for a referendum about keeping Italy a "monarchy or creating a "republic instead. Elections were not held in the "Julian March and "South Tyrol because they were under UN occupation.
The new version of article 51 Constitution recognizes equal opportunities in electoral lists.
In "Liechtenstein, women's suffrage was granted via "referendum in 1984.
Women were granted the right to vote in the "Netherlands on August 9, 1919. Before that, women had the right to be an elected representative
Liberal politician "Gina Krog was the leading campaigner for women's suffrage in Norway from the 1880s. She founded the "Norwegian Association for Women's Rights and the "National Association for Women's Suffrage to promote this cause. Members of these organisations were politically well-connected and well organised and in a few years gradually succeeded in obtaining equal rights for women. "Middle class women won the right to vote in municipal elections in 1901 and parliamentary elections in 1907. Universal suffrage for women in municipal elections was introduced in 1910, and in 1913 a motion on universal suffrage for women was adopted unanimously by the "Norwegian parliament (Stortinget). Norway thus became the first independent country to introduce women's suffrage.
Regaining independence in 1918 following the 123-year period of partition and foreign rule,["citation needed] Poland immediately granted women the right to vote and be elected as of 28 November 1918.
The first women elected to the "Sejm in 1919 were: Gabriela Balicka, Jadwiga Dziubińska, Irena Kosmowska, Maria Moczydłowska, Zofia Moraczewska, Anna Piasecka, Zofia Sokolnicka, Franciszka Wilczkowiakowa.,
"Carolina Beatriz Ângelo was the first "Portuguese woman to vote, in the "Constituent National Assembly election of 1911.
In 1931 during the "Estado Novo regime, women were allowed to vote for the first time, but only if they had a high school or "university degree, while men had only to be able to read and write. In 1946 a new electoral law enlarged the possibility of female vote, but still with some differences regarding men. A law from 1968 claimed to establish "equality of "political rights for men and women", but a few electoral rights were reserved for men. After the "Carnation Revolution, women were granted full and equal electoral rights in 1976.
The timeline of granting women's suffrage in Romania was gradual and complex, due to the turbulent historical period when it happened. The concept of universal suffrage for all men was introduced in 1918, and reinforced by the "1923 Constitution of Romania. Although this constitution opened the way for the possibility of women's suffrage too (Article 6), this did not materialize: the Electoral Law of 1926 did not grant women the right to vote, maintaining all male suffrage. Starting in 1929, women who met certain qualifications were allowed to vote in local elections. After the "Constitution from 1938 (elaborated under "Carol II of Romania who sought to implement an authoritarian regime) the voting rights were extended to women for national elections by the Electoral Law 1939, but both women and men had restrictions, and in practice these restrictions affected women more than men (the new restrictions on men also meant that men lost their previous universal suffrage). Although women could vote, they could be elected only in the "Senate and not in the "Chamber of Deputies (Article 4 (c)). (the Senate was later abolished in 1940). Due to the historical context of the time, which included the dictatorship of "Ion Antonescu, there were no elections in Romania between 1940-1946. In 1946, Law no. 560 gave full equal rights to men and women to vote and to be elected in the Chamber of Deputies; and women voted in the "Romanian general election, 1946. The "Constitution of 1948 gave women and men equal civil and political rights (Article 18). Until the collapse of communism in 1989, all the candidates were chosen by the communist party, and civil rights were merely symbolic under this authoritarian regime.
Despite initial apprehension against enfranchising women for the right to vote for the upcoming "Constituent Assembly election, the "League for Women's Equality and other suffragists rallied throughout the year of 1917 for the right to vote. After much pressure (including a 40,000-strong march on the "Tauride Palace), on July 20, 1917 the "Provisional Government enfranchised women with the right to vote.
"San Marino introduced "women's suffrage in 1959, following the 1957 constitutional crisis known as "Fatti di Rovereta. It was however only in 1973 that women obtained the right to stand for election.
During the "Miguel Primo de Rivera regime (1923–1930) only women who were considered heads of household were allowed to vote in local elections, but there were none at that time. Women's suffrage was officially adopted in 1931 despite the opposition of "Margarita Nelken and "Victoria Kent, two female MPs (both members of the Republican Radical-Socialist Party), who argued that women in Spain at that moment lacked social and political education enough to vote responsibly because they would be unduly influenced by Catholic priests. During the "Franco regime in the "organic democracy" type of elections called "referendums" (Franco's regime was dictatorial) women over 21 were allowed to vote without distinction. From 1976, during the "Spanish transition to democracy women fully exercised the right to vote and be elected to office.
During the "Age of Liberty (1718–1772), Sweden had conditional women suffrage. Until the reform of 1865, the local elections consisted of mayoral elections in the cities, and elections of parish vicars in the countryside parishes. The Sockenstämma was the local parish council who handled local affairs, in which the parish vicar presided and the local peasantry assembled and voted, an informally regulated process in which women are reported to have participated already in the 17th-century. The national elections consisted of the election of the representations to the "Riksdag of the Estates.
Suffrage was gender neutral and therefore applied to women as well as men if they filled the qualifications of a voting citizen. These qualifications were changed during the course of the 18th-century, as well as the local interpretation of the credentials, affecting the number of qualified voters: the qualifications also differed between cities and countryside, as well as local or national elections.
Initially, the right to vote in local city elections (mayoral elections) was granted to every burgher, which was defined as a taxpaying citizen with a "guild membership. Women as well as men were members of guilds, which resulted in women suffrage for a limited number of women. In 1734, suffrage in both national and local elections, in cities as well as countryside, was granted to every property owning taxpaying citizen of "legal majority. This extended suffrage to all taxpaying property owning women whether guild members or not, but excluded married women and the majority of unmarried women, as married women were defined as legal minors, and unmarried women were minors unless they applied for legal majority by royal dispensation, while widowed and "divorced women were of legal majority. The 1734 reform increased the participation of women in elections from 55 to 71 percent.
Between 1726 and 1742, women voted in 17 of 31 examined mayoral elections. Reportedly, some women voters in mayoral elections preferred to appoint a male to vote for them by "proxy in the city hall because they found it embarrassing to do so in person, which was cited as a reason to abolish women suffrage by its opponents. The custom to appoint to vote by proxy was however used also by males, and it was in fact common for men, who were absent or ill during elections, to appoint their wives to vote for them. In 1758, women were excluded from mayoral elections by a new regulation by which they could no longer be defined as burghers, but women suffrage was kept in the national elections as well as the country side parish elections. Women participated in all of the eleven national elections held up until 1757. In 1772, women suffrage in national elections was abolished by demand from the burgher estate. Women suffrage was first abolished for taxpaying unmarried women of legal majority, and then for widows. However, the local interpretation of the prohibition of women suffrage varied, and some cities continued to allow women to vote: in "Kalmar, "Växjö, "Västervik, "Simrishamn, "Ystad, "Åmål, "Karlstad, "Bergslagen, "Dalarna and "Norrland, women were allowed to continue to vote despite the 1772 ban, while in "Lund, "Uppsala, "Skara, "Åbo, "Gothenburg and "Marstrand, women were strictly barred from the vote after 1772.
While women suffrage was banned in the mayoral elections in 1758 and in the national elections in 1772, no such bar was ever introduced in the local elections in the country side, were women therefore continued to vote in the local parish elections of vicars. In a series of reforms in 1813-1817, unmarried women of legal majority, "Unmarried maiden, who has been declared of legal majority", were given the right to vote in the sockestämma (local parish council, the predecessor of the communal and city councils), and the kyrkoråd (local church councils).
In 1823, a suggestion was raised by the mayor of Strängnäs to reintroduce women suffrage for taxpaying women of legal majority (unmarried, divorced and widowed women) in the mayoral elections, and this right was reintroduced in 1858.
In 1862, tax-paying women of legal majority (unmarried, divorced and widowed women) were again allowed to vote in municipal elections, making Sweden the first country in the world to grant women the right to vote. This was after the introduction of a new political system, where a new local authority was introduced: the communal municipal council. The right to vote in municipal elections applied only to people of legal majority, which excluded married women, as they were juridically under the guardianship of their husbands. In 1884 the suggestion to grant women the right to vote in national elections was initially voted down in Parliament. During the 1880s, the "Married Woman's Property Rights Association had a campaign to encourage the female voters, qualified to vote in accordance with the 1862 law, to use their vote and increase the participation of women voters in the elections, but there was yet no public demand to women suffrage among women. In 1888, the "temperance activist "Emilie Rathou became the first woman in Sweden to demand the right for women suffrage in a public speech. In 1899, a delegation from the "Fredrika Bremer Association presented a suggestion of woman suffrage to prime minister "Erik Gustaf Boström. The delegation was headed by "Agda Montelius, accompanied by "Gertrud Adelborg, who had written the demand. This was the first time the Swedish women's movement themselves had officially presented a demand for suffrage.
In 1902 the "Swedish Society for Woman Suffrage was founded. In 1906 the suggestion of women's suffrage was voted down in parliament again. In 1909, the right to vote in municipal elections were extended to include also married women. The same year, women were granted eligibility to municipal councils, and in the following 1910–11 municipal elections, forty women were elected to different municipal councils, "Gertrud Månsson being the first. In 1914 "Emilia Broomé became the first woman in the legislative assembly.
The right to vote in national elections was not returned to women until 1919, and was practised again in the election of 1921, for the first time in 150 years.
After the 1921 election, the first women were elected to Swedish Parliament after the suffrage: "Kerstin Hesselgren in the Upper chamber and "Nelly Thüring (Social Democrat), "Agda Östlund (Social Democrat) "Elisabeth Tamm (liberal) and "Bertha Wellin (Conservative) in the Lower chamber. "Karin Kock-Lindberg became the first female government minister, and in 1958, "Ulla Lindström became the first acting Prime Minister.
A "referendum on women's suffrage was held on 1 February 1959. The majority of Switzerland's men voted against it, but in some French-speaking "cantons women obtained the vote. The first Swiss woman to hold political office, "Trudy Späth-Schweizer, was elected to the municipal government of "Riehen in 1958.
Switzerland was the last Western republic to grant women's suffrage; they gained the right to vote in federal elections in 1971 after "a second referendum that year. In 1991 following a decision by the "Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland, "Appenzell Innerrhoden became the last Swiss canton to grant women the vote on local issues.
In "Turkey, "Atatürk, the founding president of the republic, led a secularist cultural and legal transformation supporting women's rights including voting and being elected. Women won the right to vote in municipal elections on March 20, 1930. Women's suffrage was achieved for parliamentary elections on December 5, 1934, through a constitutional amendment. Turkish women, who participated in parliamentary elections for the first time on February 8, 1935, obtained 18 seats.
In the early republic, when Atatürk ran a one-party state, his party picked all candidates. A small percentage of seats were set aside for women, so naturally those female candidates won. When multi-party elections began in the 1940s, the share of women in the legislature fell, and the 4% share of parliamentary seats gained in 1935 was not reached again until 1999. In the parliament of 2011, women hold about 9% of the seats. Nevertheless, Turkish women gained the right to vote a decade or more before women in such Western European countries as France, Italy, and Belgium — a mark of Atatürk's far-reaching social changes. 
The campaign for women's suffrage in the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland gained momentum throughout the early part of the 19th century, as women became increasingly politically active, particularly during "the campaigns to reform suffrage in the United Kingdom. "John Stuart Mill, elected to "Parliament in 1865 and an open advocate of female suffrage (about to publish "The Subjection of Women), campaigned for an amendment to the "Reform Act 1832 to include female suffrage. Roundly defeated in an all-male parliament under a Conservative government, the issue of women's suffrage came to the fore.
Until the 1832 Reform Act specified 'male persons', a few women had been able to vote in parliamentary elections through property ownership, although this was rare. In local government elections, single women "ratepayers received the right to vote in the Municipal Franchise Act 1869. This right was confirmed in the "Local Government Act 1894 and extended to include some married women. By 1900, more than 1 million single women were registered to vote in local government elections in England.
During the later half of the 19th century, a number of campaign groups for women's suffrage in national elections were formed in an attempt to lobby "Members of Parliament and gain support. In 1897, seventeen of these groups came together to form the "National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS), who held public meetings, wrote letters to politicians and published various texts. In 1907 the NUWSS organized its first large procession. This march became known as the "Mud March as over 3,000 women trudged through the streets of "London from "Hyde Park to "Exeter Hall to advocate women's suffrage.
In 1903 a number of members of the NUWSS broke away and, led by "Emmeline Pankhurst, formed the "Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU). As the national media lost interest in the suffrage campaign, the WSPU decided it would use other methods to create publicity. This began in 1905 at a meeting in Manchester's "Free Trade Hall where "Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, a member of the newly elected Liberal government, was speaking. As he was talking, "Christabel Pankhurst and "Annie Kenney of the WSPU constantly shouted out, 'Will the Liberal Government give votes to women?'. When they refused to cease calling out, police were called to evict them and the two suffragettes (as members of the WSPU became known after this incident) were involved in a struggle which ended with them being arrested and charged for assault. When they refused to pay their fine, they were sent to prison for one week, and three days. The British public were shocked and took notice at this use of violence to win the vote for women.
After this media success, the WSPU's tactics became increasingly violent. This included an attempt in 1908 to storm the "House of Commons, the arson of "David Lloyd George's country home (despite his support for women's suffrage). In 1909 Lady "Constance Lytton was imprisoned, but immediately released when her identity was discovered, so in 1910 she disguised herself as a "working class seamstress called "Jane Warton and endured inhumane treatment which included "force-feeding. In 1913, suffragette "Emily Davison protested by interfering with a horse owned by King "George V during the running of the "Epsom Derby; she was trampled and died four days later. The WSPU ceased their militant activities during "World War I and agreed to assist with the "war effort.
The National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, which had always employed 'constitutional' methods, continued to lobby during the war years, and compromises were worked out between the NUWSS and the coalition government. The "Speaker's Conference on electoral reform (1917) represented all the parties in both houses, and came to the conclusion that women's suffrage was essential. Regarding fears that women would suddenly move from zero to a majority of the electorate due to the heavy loss of men during the war, the Conference recommended that the age restriction be 21 for men, and 30 for women.
On 6 February 1918, the "Representation of the People Act 1918 was passed, enfranchising women over the age of 30 who met minimum property qualifications. About 8.4 million women gained the vote, not only in Britain and Ireland. In November 1918, the "Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act 1918 was passed, allowing women to be elected into Parliament. The Representation of the People Act 1928 extended the voting franchise in Great Britain and Northern Ireland to all women over the age of 21, granting women the vote on the same terms as men.
In 1999, "Time magazine, in naming Emmeline Pankhurst as one of the "100 Most Important People of the 20th Century, states: "...she shaped an idea of women for our time; she shook society into a new pattern from which there could be no going back".
Women's political status without the vote was promoted by the "National Council of Women of Canada from 1894 to 1918. It promoted a vision of "transcendent citizenship" for women. The ballot was not needed, for citizenship was to be exercised through personal influence and moral suasion, through the election of men with strong moral character, and through raising public-spirited sons. The National Council position was integrated into its nation-building program that sought to uphold Canada as a White settler nation. While the women's suffrage movement was important for extending the political rights of White women, it was also authorized through race-based arguments that linked White women's enfranchisement to the need to protect the nation from "racial degeneration."
Women had local votes in some provinces, as in Ontario from 1850, where women owning property ("freeholders and householders) could vote for school trustees. By 1900 other provinces had adopted similar provisions, and in 1916 Manitoba took the lead in extending women's suffrage. Simultaneously suffragists gave strong support to the Prohibition movement, especially in Ontario and the Western provinces.
The "Wartime Elections Act of 1917 gave the vote to British women who were war widows or had sons, husbands, fathers, or brothers serving overseas. "Unionist Prime Minister Sir "Robert Borden pledged himself during the 1917 campaign to equal suffrage for women. After his landslide victory, he introduced a bill in 1918 for extending the franchise to women. On 24 May 1918, women considered citizens (not Aboriginal women) became eligible to vote who were "age 21 or older, not alien-born and meet property requirements in provinces where they exist".
Most women of Quebec gained full suffrage in 1940.
The first woman elected to Parliament was "Agnes Macphail in Ontario in 1921.
The liberal Mexican Constitution of 1857 did not bar women from voting in Mexico or holding office, but "election laws restricted the suffrage to males, and in practice women did not participate nor demand a part in politics," with framers being indifferent to the issue. Years of civil war and the French intervention delayed any consideration of women's role in Mexican political life, but during the Restored Republic and the "Porfiriato (1876-1911), women began organizing to expand their civil rights, including suffrage. Socialist publications in Mexico began advocating changes in law and practice as early as 1878. The journal La Internacional articulated a detailed program of reform that aimed at "the emancipation, rehabilitation, and integral education of women." The era of the Porfiriato did not record changes in law regarding the status of women, but women began entering professions requiring higher education: law, medicine, and pharmacy (requiring a university degree), but also teaching. Liberalism placed great importance on secular education, so that the public school system ranks of the teaching profession expanded in the late nineteenth century, which benefited females wishing to teach and education for girls.
The status of women in Mexico became an issue during the "Mexican Revolution, with "Francisco I. Madero, the challenger to the continued presidency of "Porfirio Diaz interested in the rights of Mexican women. Madero was part of a rich estate-owning family in the northern state of Coahuila, who had attended "University of California, Berkeley briefly and traveled in Europe, absorbing liberal ideas and practices. Madero's wife as well as his female personal assistant, Soledad González, "unquestionably enhanced his interest in women's rights." González was one of the orphans that the Maderos adopted; she learned typing and stenography, and traveled to Mexico City following Madero's election as president in 1911. Madero's brief presidential term was tumultuous, and with no previous political experience, Madero was unable to forward the cause of women's suffrage.
Following his ouster by military coup led by "Victoriano Huerta and Madero's assassination, those taking up Madero's cause and legacy, the "Constitutionalists (named after the liberal Constitution of 1857) began to discuss women's rights. "Venustiano Carranza, former governor of Coahuila, and following Madero's assassination, the "first chief" of the Constitutionalists. Carranza also had an influential female private secretary, "Hermila Galindo, who was a champion of women's rights in Mexico.
In asserting his Carranza promulgated political plan "Plan de Guadalupe in 1914, enumerating in standard Mexican fashion, his aims as he sought supporters. In the "Additions" to the Plan de Guadalupe, Carranza made some important statements that affected families and the status of women in regards to marriage. In December 1914, Carranza issued a decree that legalized divorce under certain circumstances. Although the decree did not lead to women's suffrage, it eased somewhat restrictions that still existed in the civil even after the nineteenth-century liberal "Reforma established the State's right to regulate marriage as a civil rather than an ecclesiastical matter.
There was increased advocacy for women's rights in the late 1910s, with the founding of a new feminist magazine, Mujer Moderna, which ceased publication in 1919. Mexico saw several international women's rights congresses, the first being held in Mérida, Yucatán, in 1916. The "International Congress of Women had some 700 delegates attend, but did not result in lasting changes.
As women's suffrage made progress in Great Britain and the United States, in Mexico there was an echo. Carranza, who was elected president in 1916, called for a convention to draft a new Mexican Constitution that incorporated gains for particular groups, such as the industrial working class and the peasantry seeking land reform. It also incorporated increased restrictions on the "Roman Catholic Church in Mexico, an extension of the anticlericalism in the Constitution of 1857. The Constitution of 1917 did not explicitly empower women's access to the ballot.
In 1937, Mexican feminists challenged the wording of the Constitution concerning who is eligible for citizenship – the Constitution did not specify "men and women." "María del Refugio García ran for election as a Sole Front for Women's Rights candidate for her home district, Uruapan. García won by a huge margin, but was not allowed to take her seat because the government would have to amend the Constitution. In response, García went on a hunger strike outside President Lázaro Cárdenas' residence in Mexico City for 11 days in August 1937. Cárdenas responded by promising to change Article 34 in the Constitution that September. By December, the amendment had been passed by congress, and women were granted full citizenship. However, the vote for women in Mexico was not granted until 1958.
Women gained the right to vote in 1953 for local elections and for national elections in 1958.
The "New Jersey constitution of 1776 enfranchised all adult inhabitants who owned a specified amount of property. Laws enacted in 1790 and 1797 referred to voters as "he or she", and women regularly voted. A law passed in 1807, however, excluded women from voting in that state.
"Lydia Taft was an early forerunner in "Colonial America who was allowed to vote in three "New England town meetings, beginning in 1756, at "Uxbridge, Massachusetts. The women's suffrage movement was closely tied to "abolitionism, with many suffrage activists gaining their first experience as anti-slavery activists.
In June 1848, "Gerrit Smith made women's suffrage a "plank in the "Liberty Party "platform. In July, at the "Seneca Falls Convention in "upstate New York, activists including "Elizabeth Cady Stanton and "Susan B. Anthony began a seventy-year struggle by women to secure the right to vote. Attendees signed a document known as the "Declaration of Rights and Sentiments, of which Stanton was the primary author. Equal rights became the rallying cry of the early movement for women's rights, and equal rights meant claiming access to all the prevailing definitions of freedom. In 1850 "Lucy Stone organized a larger assembly with a wider focus, the "National Women's Rights Convention in "Worcester, Massachusetts. "Susan B. Anthony, a resident of "Rochester, New York, joined the cause in 1852 after reading Stone's 1850 speech. Stanton, Stone and Anthony were the three leading figures of this movement in the U.S. during the 19th century: the "triumvirate" of the drive to gain voting rights for women. Women's suffrage activists pointed out that black people had been granted the franchise and had not been included in the language of the "United States Constitution's Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments (which gave people equal protection under the law and the right to vote regardless of their race, respectively). This, they contended, had been unjust. Early victories were won in the territories of "Wyoming (1869) and "Utah (1870).
"John Allen Campbell, the first Governor of the Wyoming Territory, approved the first law in United States history explicitly granting women the right to vote. The law was approved on December 10, 1869. This day was later commemorated as Wyoming Day. On February 12, 1870, the Secretary of the Territory and Acting Governor of the "Territory of Utah, S. A. Mann, approved a law allowing twenty-one-year-old women to vote in any election in Utah.
Utah women were disenfranchised by provisions of the federal "Edmunds–Tucker Act enacted by the "U.S. Congress in 1887.
The push to grant Utah women's suffrage was at least partially fueled by the belief that, given the right to vote, Utah women would dispose of "polygamy. It was only after Utah women exercised their suffrage rights in favor of polygamy that the U.S. Congress disenfranchised Utah women.
By the end of the 19th century, "Idaho, "Utah, and "Wyoming had enfranchised women after effort by the suffrage associations at the state level; "Colorado notably "enfranchised women by an 1893 referendum.
During the beginning of the 20th century, as women's suffrage faced several important federal votes, a portion of the suffrage movement known as the "National Woman's Party led by suffragist "Alice Paul became the first "cause" to picket outside the White House. Paul had been mentored by Emmeline Pankhurst while in England, and both she and "Lucy Burns led a series of protests against the "Wilson Administration in Washington. Wilson ignored the protests for six months, but on June 20, 1917, as a Russian delegation drove up to the White House, suffragists unfurled a banner which stated: "We women of America tell you that America is not a democracy. Twenty million women are denied the right to vote. President Wilson is the chief opponent of their national enfranchisement". Another banner on August 14, 1917, referred to ""Kaiser Wilson" and compared the plight of the German people with that of American women. With this manner of protest, the women were subject to arrests and many were jailed. On October 17, Alice Paul was sentenced to seven months and on October 30 began a "hunger strike, but after a few days prison authorities began to force feed her. After years of opposition, Wilson changed his position in 1918 to advocate women's suffrage as a war measure.
The key vote came on June 4, 1919, when the Senate approved the amendment by 56 to 25 after four hours of debate, during which Democratic Senators opposed to the amendment "filibustered to prevent a roll call until their absent Senators could be protected by pairs. The Ayes included 36 (82%) Republicans and 20 (54%) Democrats. The Nays comprised 8 (18%) Republicans and 17 (46%) Democrats. The "Nineteenth Amendment, which prohibited state or federal sex-based restrictions on voting, was ratified by sufficient states in 1920. According to the article, "Nineteenth Amendment", by Leslie Goldstein from the Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court of the United States, "by the end it also included jail sentences, and hunger strikes in jail accompanied by brutal force feedings; mob violence; and legislative votes so close that partisans were carried in on stretchers" (Goldstein, 2008). Even after the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified, women were still facing problems. For instance, when women had registered to vote in Maryland, "residents sued to have the women's names removed from the registry on the grounds that the amendment itself was unconstitutional" (Goldstein, 2008).
Before 1965, women of color, such as African Americans and "Native Americans, were "disenfranchised, especially in the "South. The "Voting Rights Act of 1965 prohibited racial discrimination in voting, and secured voting rights for racial minorities throughout the U.S.
The female descendants of the "Bounty mutineers who lived on "Pitcairn Islands could vote from 1838, and this right transferred with their resettlement to "Norfolk Island (now an "Australian external territory) in 1856.
Propertied women in the colony of South Australia were granted the vote in local elections (but not parliamentary elections) in 1861. "Henrietta Dugdale formed the first Australian women's suffrage society in "Melbourne, Victoria in 1884. Women became eligible to vote for the "Parliament of South Australia in 1895 and in 1897, "Catherine Helen Spence became the first female political candidate for political office, unsuccessfully standing for election as a delegate to Federal Convention on Australian Federation. "Western Australia granted voting rights to women in 1899.
The first election for the Parliament of the newly formed "Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 was based on the electoral provisions of the six pre-existing colonies, so that women who had the vote and the right to stand for Parliament at state level had the same rights for the 1901 Australian Federal election. In 1902, the Commonwealth Parliament passed the Commonwealth Franchise Act, which enabled all women to vote and stand for election for the Federal Parliament. Four women stood for election in 1903. The Act did, however, specifically exclude 'natives' from Commonwealth franchise unless already enrolled in a state. In 1949, the right to vote in federal elections was extended to all Indigenous people who had served in the armed forces, or were enrolled to vote in state elections (Queensland, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory still excluded indigenous women from voting rights). Remaining restrictions were abolished in 1962 by the Commonwealth Electoral Act.
"Edith Cowan was elected to the West Australian Legislative Assembly in 1921, the first woman elected to any Australian Parliament. Dame "Enid Lyons, in the "Australian House of Representatives and Senator "Dorothy Tangney became the first women in the Federal Parliament in 1943. Lyons went on to be the first woman to hold a "Cabinet post in the 1949 ministry of "Robert Menzies. "Rosemary Follett was elected "Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory in 1989, becoming the first woman elected to lead a state or territory. By 2010, the people of Australia's oldest city, "Sydney had female leaders occupying every major political office above them, with "Clover Moore as Lord Mayor, "Kristina Keneally as Premier of New South Wales, "Marie Bashir as Governor of New South Wales, "Julia Gillard as Prime Minister, "Quentin Bryce as "Governor-General of Australia and "Elizabeth II as "Queen of Australia.
"Women in "Rarotonga won the right to vote in 1893, shortly after "New Zealand.
New Zealand's Electoral Act of 19 September 1893 made this country the first in the world to grant women the right to vote in parliamentary elections.
Although the "Liberal government which passed the bill generally advocated social and political reform, the electoral bill was only passed because of a combination of personality issues and political accident. The bill granted the vote to women of all races. New Zealand women were denied the right to stand for parliament, however, until 1920. In 2005 almost a third of the "Members of Parliament elected were female. Women recently have also occupied powerful and symbolic offices such as those of "Prime Minister ("Jenny Shipley and "Helen Clark), "Governor-General ("Catherine Tizard and "Silvia Cartwright), "Chief Justice ("Sian Elias), "Speaker of the House of Representatives ("Margaret Wilson), and from 3 March 2005 to 23 August 2006, all four of these posts were held by women, along with "Queen Elizabeth as "Head of State.
The modern suffragist movement in Argentina arose partly in conjunction with the activities of the "Socialist Party and anarchists of the early twentieth century. Women involved in larger movements for social justice began to agitate equal rights and opportunities on par with men; following the example of their European peers, Elvira Dellepiane Rawson, "Cecilia Grierson and "Alicia Moreau de Justo began to form a number of groups in defense of the civil rights of women between 1900 and 1910. The first major victories for extending the civil rights of women occurred in the "Province of San Juan. Women had been allowed to vote in that province since 1862, but only in municipal elections. A similar right was extended in the "province of Santa Fe where a constitution that ensured women's suffrage was enacted at the municipal level, although female participation in votes initially remained low. In 1927, San Juan sanctioned its Constitution and broadly recognized the equal rights of men and women. However, the "1930 coup overthrew these advances.
A great pioneer of women's suffrage was "Julieta Lanteri, the daughter of Italian immigrants, who in 1910 requested a national court to grant her the right to citizenship (at the time not generally given to single female immigrants) as well as suffrage. The Claros judge upheld her request and declared: "As a judge, I have a duty to declare that her right to citizenship is enshrined in the Constitution, and therefore that women enjoy the same political rights as the laws grant to male citizens, with the only restrictions expressly determined such laws, because no inhabitant is deprived of what they do not prohibit."
In July 1911, "Dr. Lanteri were enumerated, and on November 26 of that year exercised her right to vote, the first Ibero-American woman to vote. Also covered in a judgment in 1919 was presented as a candidate for national deputy for the Independent Centre Party, obtaining 1730 votes out of 154,302.
In 1919, Rogelio Araya UCR Argentina had gone down in history for being the first to submit a bill recognizing the right to vote for women, an essential component of universal suffrage. On July 17, 1919, he served as deputy national on behalf of the people of "Santa Fe.
On February 27, 1946, three days after the "elections that consecrated president "Juan Perón and his wife First Lady "Eva Perón 26 years of age gave his first political speech in an organized women to thank them for their support of Perón's candidacy. On that occasion, Eva demanded equal rights for men and women and particularly, women's suffrage:
The woman Argentina has exceeded the period of civil tutorials. Women must assert their action, women should vote. The woman, moral spring home, you should take the place in the complex social machinery of the people. He asks a necessity new organize more extended and remodeled groups. It requires, in short, the transformation of the concept of woman who sacrificially has increased the number of its duties without seeking the minimum of their rights.
The bill was presented the new constitutional government assumed immediately after the May 1, 1946. The opposition of conservative bias was evident, not only the opposition parties but even within parties who supported "Peronism. Eva Perón constantly pressured the parliament for approval, even causing protests from the latter for this intrusion.
Although it was a brief text in three articles, that practically could not give rise to discussions, the Senate recently gave preliminary approval to the project August 21, 1946, and had to wait over a year for the House of Representative to publish the September 9, 1947 Law 13,010, establishing equal political rights between men and women and universal suffrage in "Argentina. Finally, Law 13,010 was approved unanimously.
In an official statement on national television, Eva Perón announced the extension of suffrage to Argentina's women:
Women of my country, I get right now, from the government of the nation, the law that enshrines our civic rights. And the receipt with you, with the certainty that I do on behalf of all Argentine women, joyfully feeling my hands tremble contact Laurel proclaiming victory. My sister is here, in tight hay summary letter few items a long history of struggles and hopes smoothly. Therefore twitching in her indignation, shadows aucasos threatening, but also joyful awakening of triumphal auroras. And the latter that defame the victory of the woman on misunderstandings, denials and interests created caste repudiated by our national awakening. And UN Leader Molding paragraph Facing Fate victoriously the problems of the time, General Peron. The Centre and the vote will contribute to the perfection of democracy Argentina, my dear friends.
On 23 September 1947, they enacted the Female Enrollment Act (No. 13,010) during the first presidency of Juan Domingo Perón, which was implemented in the "elections of November 11, 1951, in which 3 816 654 women voted (63.9% voted for the "Justicialista Party and 30.8% for the "Radical Civic Union). Later in 1952, the first 23 senators and deputies took their seats, representing the Justicialista Party.
Women were granted the right to vote and be elected in Electoral Code of 1932, followed by Brazilian Constitution of 1934. However, the law of "Rio Grande do Norte State has allowed women to vote since 1926.
Debate about women's suffrage in Chile began in the 1920s. Women's suffrage in "municipal elections was first established in 1931 by decree (decreto con fuerza de ley); "voting age for women was set at 25 years. In addition, the "Chamber of Deputies approved a law on March 9, 1933 establishing women's suffrage in municipal elections.
Women obtained the legal right to vote in parliamentary and presidential elections in 1949. Women's share among voters increased steadily after 1949, reaching the same levels of participation as men in 1970.
After the "1928 Student Protests, women started participating more actively in politics. In 1935, women's rights supporters founded the Feminine Cultural Group (known as 'ACF' from its initials in Spanish), with the goal of tackling women's problems. The group supported women's political and social rights, and believed it was necessary to involve and inform women about these issues in order to ensure their personal development. It went on to give seminars, as well as founding night schools and the House of Laboring Women.
Groups looking to reform the 1936 Civil Code of Conduct in conjunction with the Venezuelan representation to the Union of American Women called the First Feminine Venezuelan Congress in 1940. In this congress, delegates discussed the situation of women in Venezuela and their demands. Key goals were women's suffrage and a reform to the Civil Code of Conduct. Around twelve thousand signatures were collected and handed to the Venezuelan Congress, which reformed the Civil Code of Conduct in 1942.
In 1944, groups supporting women's suffrage, the most important being Feminine Action, organized around the country. During 1945, women attained the right to vote at a municipal level. This was followed by a stronger call of action. Feminine Action began editing a newspaper called the Correo Cívico Femenino, to connect, inform and orientate Venezuelan women in their struggle. Finally, after the "1945 Venezuelan Coup d'État and the "call for a new Constitution, to which women were elected, women's suffrage became a constitutional right in the country.
Women's suffrage in non-religious organizations
The right of women to vote has sometimes been denied in non-religious organizations; for example, it was not until 1964 that women in the (American) "National Association of the Deaf were first allowed to vote.
Women's suffrage in religions
The "Pope is elected by the "College of Cardinals. Women are not appointed as cardinals, and therefore women cannot vote for the Pope. The female Catholic offices of "Abbess or Mother Superior are elective, the choice being made by the secret votes of the nuns belonging to the community.["incomplete short citation]
In the United States, some mosques have constitutions prohibiting women from voting in board elections.
In Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism and other liberal Jewish movements women have the right to vote. Since the 1970s, more and more Modern Orthodox synagogues and religious organizations have been granting women the rights to vote and to be elected to their governing bodies. Women are denied the vote and the ability to be elected to positions of authority in some Ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities.
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|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Women's suffrage.|
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- Photo Essay on Women's Suffrage by the International Museum of Women
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- UNCG Special Collections and University Archives selections of American Suffragette manuscripts
- Photographs of U.S. suffragettes, marches, and demonstrations
- Ada James papers and correspondence (1915–1918)—a digital collection presented by the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center. "Ada James (1876–1952) was a leading a social reformer, humanitarian, and pacifist from "Richland Center, Wisconsin and daughter of "state senator David G. James. The Ada James papers document the grass roots organizing and politics required to promote and guarantee the passage of women's suffrage in Wisconsin and beyond.
- Women´s suffrage in Germany—19 January 1919—first suffrage (active and passive) for women in Germany
- Suffragists vs. Suffragettes—brief article outlining origins of term "suffragette", usage of term and links to other sources.
- Women in Congress—Information about women who have served in the U.S. Congress including historical essays that cover suffrage.
- Culture Victoria—historical images and videos for the Centenary of Women's Suffrage
- Woman suffragist, Mary Ellen Ewing vs the Houston School Board—Collection at the University of Houston Digital Library.
- Gayle Olson-Raymer, "The Early Women's Movement", 17-page teaching guide for high school students, Zinn Education Project/Rethinking Schools
- Women's Suffrage and Equal Rights in the Claremont Colleges Digital Library
- Select "Suffrage" subject, at the Persuasive Cartography, The PJ Mode Collection, "Cornell University Library