March 22, 1929
"Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan
Yayoi Kusama (草間 彌生 Kusama Yayoi, born March 22, 1929) is a "Japanese "contemporary artist who works primarily in "sculpture and "installation, but is also active in "painting, "performance, "film, "fashion, "poetry, "fiction and other arts. Her work is based in "conceptual art and shows some attributes of "feminism, "minimalism, "surrealism, "Art Brut, pop art, and abstract expressionism, and is infused with "autobiographical, "psychological, and "sexual content.
Raised in Matsumoto, Kusama trained at the Kyoto School of Arts and Crafts in a traditional Japanese painting style called nihonga. Kusama was inspired, however, by American Abstract Impressionism. She moved to New York City in 1958 and was a part of the New York "avant-garde scene throughout the 1960s, especially in the "pop-art "movement. Embracing the rise of the "hippie "counterculture of the late 1960s, she came to public attention when she organized a series of "happenings in which naked participants were painted with brightly colored "polka dots.   Despite her hiatus from the New York art scene in the early 1970s, Kusama is now acknowledged as one of the most important living artists to come out of "Japan.
Born in 1929 in "Matsumoto, Nagano into an "affluent family of "merchants who owned a "plant nursery and "seed farm, Kusama started creating art at an early age and began writing poetry at age 18. Her mother was apparently physically "abusive, and Kusama remembers her father as "the type who would play around, who would womanize a lot". The artist says that her mother would often send her to spy on her father's "extramarital affairs, which instilled within her a lifelong contempt for "sexuality, particularly the male body and the "phallus: "I don’t like sex. I had an obsession with sex. When I was a child, my father had lovers and I experienced seeing him. My mother sent me to spy on him. I didn’t want to have sex with anyone for years [...] The sexual obsession and fear of sex sit side by side in me."
When she was ten years old, she began to experience vivid "hallucinations which she has described as "flashes of light, auras, or dense fields of dots". These hallucinations also included "flowers that spoke to Kusama, and patterns in "fabric that she stared at coming to life, multiplying, and engulfing or expunging her, a process which she has carried into her artistic career and which she calls "self-obliteration". She was reportedly fascinated by the smooth white stones covering the bed of the river near her family home, which she cites as another of the seminal influences behind her lasting fixation on dots.
When Kusama was 13, she was sent to work in a military "factory where she was tasked with "sewing and fabricating "parachutes for the "Japanese army, then embroiled in "World War II. Discussing her time in the factory, she says that she spent her adolescence "in closed darkness" although she could always hear the "air-raid alerts going off and see American "B-29s flying overhead in broad daylight. Her childhood was greatly influenced by the events of the war, and she claims that it was during this period that she began to value notions of personal and creative freedom.
She went on to study "Nihonga painting at the Kyoto Municipal School of Arts and Crafts in 1948. Frustrated with this distinctly Japanese style, she became interested in the European and American "avant-garde, staging several "solo exhibitions of her paintings in Matsumoto and "Tokyo in the 1950s.
By 1950, Kusama was depicting abstracted natural forms in watercolor, "gouache, and oil, primarily on paper. She began covering surfaces—walls, floors, "canvases, and later, household objects, and naked assistants—with the "polka dots that would become a trademark of her work.
The vast fields of polka dots, or "infinity nets", as she called them, were taken directly from her hallucinations. The earliest recorded work in which she incorporated these dots was a drawing in 1939 at age 10, in which the image of a Japanese woman in a "kimono, presumed to be the artist's mother, is covered and obliterated by spots. Her first series of large-scale, sometimes more than 30 ft-long canvas paintings, Infinity Nets, were entirely covered in a sequence of nets and dots that alluded to hallucinatory visions.
Of her 1954 painting Flower (D.S.P.S), Kusama has said,
One day I was looking at the red flower patterns of the tablecloth on a table, and when I looked up I saw the same pattern covering the ceiling, the windows and the walls, and finally all over the room, my body and the universe. I felt as if I had begun to self-obliterate, to revolve in the infinity of endless time and the absoluteness of space, and be reduced to nothingness. As I realized it was actually happening and not just in my imagination, I was frightened. I knew I had to run away lest I should be deprived of my life by the spell of the red flowers. I ran desperately up the stairs. The steps below me began to fall apart and I fell down the stairs straining my ankle.
After living in Tokyo and France, Kusama left Japan at the age of 27 for the United States. She has stated that she began to consider Japanese society "too small, too servile, too feudalistic, and too scornful of women." In 1957, she moved to "Seattle, where she had an exhibition of paintings at the "Zoe Dusanne Gallery. She stayed there for a year before moving on to New York City, following correspondence with "Georgia O'Keeffe in which she professed an interest in joining the limelight of the city, and sought O'Keeffe's advice. During her time in the US, she quickly established her reputation as a leader in the avant-garde movement and received praise for her work from the anarchist art critic "Herbert Read. In 1961 she moved her studio into the same building as "Donald Judd and sculptor "Eva Hesse; Hesse became a close friend. In the early 1960s Kusama began to cover items such as ladders, shoes and chairs with white phallic protrusions. Despite the micromanaged intricacy of the drawings, she turned them out fast and in bulk, establishing a rhythm of productivity which she still maintains. She established other habits too, like having herself routinely photographed with new work and regularly appearing in public wearing her signature bobbed "anime wigs and colorful, avant-garde fashions.
Since 1963, Kusama has continued her series of Mirror/Infinity rooms. In these complex "infinity mirror installations, purpose-built rooms lined with mirrored glass contain scores of neon-colored balls, hanging at various heights above the viewer. Standing inside on a small platform, an observer sees light repeatedly reflected off the mirrored surfaces to create the illusion of a never-ending space. During the following years, Kusama was enormously productive, and by 1966 she was experimenting with room-size, freestanding installations that incorporated mirrors, lights, and piped-in music. She counted Judd and "Joseph Cornell among her friends and supporters. However, she did not profit financially from her work. Around this time, Kusama was hospitalized regularly from overwork, and O'Keeffe convinced her own dealer Edith Herbert to purchase several works in order to help Kusama stave off financial hardship.
In the 1960s, Kusama organized outlandish "happenings in conspicuous spots like "Central Park and the "Brooklyn Bridge, often involving "nudity and designed to protest the "Vietnam War. In one, she wrote an open letter to "Richard Nixon offering to have vigorous sex with him if he would stop the Vietnam war. Between 1967 and 1969 she concentrated on performances held with the maximum publicity, usually involving Kusama painting polka dots on her naked performers, as in the Grand Orgy to Awaken the Dead at the MoMA (1969), which took place at the Sculpture Garden of the "Museum of Modern Art. During the unannounced event, eight performers under Kusama's direction removed their clothing, stepped nude into a fountain, and assumed poses mimicking the nearby sculptures by "Picasso, "Giacometti, and "Maillol.
In 1968, Kusama presided over the happening Homosexual Wedding at the Church of Self-obliteration at 33 Walker Street in New York and performed alongside "Fleetwood Mac and "Country Joe and the Fish at the "Fillmore East in New York City. She opened naked painting studios and a gay social club called the Kusama 'Omophile Kompany (kok).
In 1966, Kusama first participated in the "Venice Biennale for its 33rd edition. Her Narcissus Garden comprised hundreds of mirrored spheres outdoors in what she called a "kinetic carpet". As soon as the piece was installed on a lawn outside the Italian pavilion, Kusama, dressed in a golden kimono, began selling each individual sphere for 1,200 lire (US$2), until the Biennale organisers put an end to her enterprise. Narcissus Garden was as much about the promotion of the artist through the media as it was an opportunity to offer a critique of the mechanization and commodification of the art market. 
During her time in New York, Kusama had a brief relationship with artist "Donald Judd. She then began a passionate, but platonic, relationship with the surrealist artist "Joseph Cornell. She was twenty-six years his junior—they would call each other daily, sketch each other, and he would send personalised collages to her. Their lengthy association would last until his death in 1972.
In 1973, Kusama returned to Japan in ill health, where she began writing shockingly visceral and surrealistic novels, short stories, and poetry. She became an art dealer, but her business folded after several years and in 1977 Kusama checked herself into the Seiwa Hospital for the Mentally Ill, where she eventually took up permanent residence. She has been living at the hospital since, by choice. Her studio, where she has continued to produce work since the mid-1970s, is a short distance from the hospital in "Shinjuku, Tokyo. Kusama is often quoted as saying: "If it were not for art, I would have killed myself a long time ago."
From this base, she has continued to produce artworks in a variety of media, as well as launching a literary career by publishing several novels, a poetry collection, and an autobiography. Her painting style shifted to high-colored acrylics on canvas, on an amped-up scale.
Her organically "abstract paintings of one or two colors (the Infinity Nets series), which she began upon arriving in New York, garnered comparisons to the work of "Jackson Pollock, "Mark Rothko, and "Barnett Newman. When she left New York she was practically forgotten as an artist until the late 1980s and 1990s, when a number of retrospectives revived international interest.
Following the success of the Japanese pavilion at the "Venice Biennale in 1993, a dazzling mirrored room filled with small pumpkin sculptures in which she resided in color-coordinated magician's attire, Kusama went on to produce a huge, yellow pumpkin sculpture covered with an optical pattern of black spots. The pumpkin came to represent for her a kind of alter-ego or self-portrait. Kusama's later installation I'm Here, but Nothing (2000–2008) is a simply furnished room consisting of table and chairs, place settings and bottles, armchairs and rugs, however its walls are tattooed with hundreds of fluorescent polka dots glowing in the "UV light. The result is an endless infinite space where the self and everything in the room is obliterated.
The multi-part floating work Guidepost to the New Space, a series of rounded "humps" in fire-engine red with white polka dots, was displayed in Pandanus Lake. Perhaps one of Kusama's most notorious works, various versions of Narcissus Garden have been presented worldwide venues including Le Consortium, Dijon, 2000; Kunstverein Braunschweig, 2003; as part of the "Whitney Biennial in Central Park, New York in 2004; and at the "Jardin de Tuileries in Paris, 2010.
In her ninth decade, Kusama has continued to work as an artist. She has harkened back to earlier work by returning to drawing and painting; her work remained innovative and multi-disciplinary, and a 2012 exhibition displayed multiple acrylic-on-canvas works. Also featured was an exploration of infinite space in her Infinity Mirror rooms. These typically involve a cube-shaped room lined in mirrors, with water on the floor and flickering lights; these features suggest a pattern of life and death.
In 2017, a 50-year retrospective of her work opened at the "Hirshhorn Museum in Washington, DC. The exhibit featured six Infinity Mirror rooms, and is scheduled to travel to five museums in the US and Canada. On February 25, 2017, Kusama's All the Eternal Love I Have for the Pumpkins exhibit, one of the six components to her Infinity Mirror rooms at the Hirshhorn Museum, was temporarily closed for three days following damage to one of the exhibit's glowing pumpkin sculptures. The room, which measures 13 square feet (1.2 m2) and is filled with over 60 pumpkin sculptures, is one of the museum's most popular attractions ever. Allison Peck, a spokeswoman for the Hirshhorn, said in an interview that the museum "has never had a show with that kind of visitor demand", with the room averaging over 8,000 visitors between its opening and the date of its temporary closing. While there were conflicting media reports about the cost of the damaged sculpture and how exactly it was broken, Allison Peck stated that "there is no intrinsic value to the individual piece. It is a manufactured component to a larger piece." The exhibit was reconfigured to make up for the missing sculpture, and a new one was to be produced for the exhibit by Kusama.
Also in 2017, the Yayoi Kusama Museum opened; it is in Tokyo and features her works.
In Yayoi Kusama’s Walking Piece (1966), a performance that was documented in a series of eighteen color slides, Kusama walks along the streets of New York City in a traditional Japanese kimono with a parasol. The kimono suggests traditional roles for women in Japanese custom. The parasol, however, is made to look inauthentic as it is really a black umbrella painted white on the exterior and decorated with fake flowers. Kusama walks down unoccupied streets in an unknown quest. She then turns and cries without reason, and eventually walks away and vanishes from view. This performance, through the association of the kimono, involves the stereotypes that Asian American women continue to face. However, as an avant-garde artist living in New York, her situation alters the context of the dress, creating a cross-cultural amalgamation. Kusama is able to point out the stereotype in which her white American audience categorizes her, by showing the absurdity of culturally categorizing people in the world’s largest melting pot.
In 1968, the film Kusama's Self-Obliteration which Kusama produced and starred in won a prize at the Fourth International Experimental Film Competition in "Belgium and the Second "Maryland Film Festival and the second prize at the "Ann Arbor Film Festival. In 1991, Kusama starred in the film Tokyo Decadence, written and directed by "Ryu Murakami, and in 1993, she collaborated with British musician "Peter Gabriel on an installation in "Yokohama.["citation needed]
In 1968, Kusama established Kusama Fashion Company Ltd, and began selling "avantgarde fashion in the "Kusama Corner" at "Bloomingdales. In 2009, Kusama designed a handbag-shaped cell phone entitled Handbag for Space Travel, My Doggie Ring-Ring, a pink dotted phone in accompanying dog-shaped holder, and a red and white dotted phone inside a mirrored, dotted box dubbed Dots Obsession, Full Happiness With Dots, for Japanese mobile communication giant "KDDI Corporation's "iida" brand. Each phone was limited to 1000 pieces.
In 2011, Kusama created artwork for six limited-edition lipglosses from "Lancôme. That same year, she worked with "Marc Jacobs (who visited her studio in Japan in 2006) on a line of "Louis Vuitton products, including leather goods, ready-to-wear, accessories, shoes, watches, and jewelry. The products became available in 2012 at a SoHo pop-up shop, which was decorated with Kusama's trademark tentacle-like protrusions and polka-dots. Eventually, six other pop-up shops were opened around the world. When asked about her collaboration with Marc Jacobs, Kusama replied that "his sincere attitude toward art" is the same as her own.
In 1977, Kusama published a book of poems and paintings entitled 7. One year later, her first novel Manhattan Suicide Addict appeared. Between 1983 and 1990, she finished the novels The Hustler's Grotto of Christopher Street (1983), The Burning of St Mark's Church (1985), Between Heaven and Earth (1988), Woodstock Phallus Cutter (1988), Aching Chandelier (1989), Double Suicide at Sakuragazuka (1989), and Angels in Cape Cod (1990), alongside several issues of the magazine S&M Sniper in collaboration with photographer "Nobuyoshi Araki.
To date, Kusama has completed several major outdoor sculptural commissions, mostly in the form of brightly hued monstrous plants and flowers, for public and private institutions including Pumpkin (1994) for the "Fukuoka Municipal Museum of Art; The Visionary Flowers (2002) for the Matsumoto City Museum of Art; Tsumari in Bloom (2003) for "Matsudai Station, Niigata; Tulipes de Shangri-La (2003) for Euralille in Lille, France; Pumpkin (2006) at Bunka-mura on Benesse Island of Naoshima; Hello, Anyang with Love (2007) for Pyeonghwa Park, Anyang; and The Hymn of Life: Tulips (2007) for the "Beverly Gardens Park in Los Angeles. In 1998, she realized a mural for the hallway of the "Gare do Oriente subway station in Lisbon. Alongside these monumental works, she has produced smaller scale outdoor pieces including Key-Chan and Ryu-Chan, a pair of dotted dogs. All the outdoor works are cast in highly durable fiberglass-reinforced plastic, then painted in "urethane to glossy perfection.
In 2010, Kusama designed a Town Sneaker styled bus, which she titled Mizutama Ranbu (Wild Polka Dot Dance) and whose route travels through her home town of "Matsumoto. In 2011, she was commissioned to design the front cover of millions of pocket "London Underground maps; the result is entitled Polka Dots Festival in London (2011). Coinciding with an exhibition of the artist's work at the "Whitney Museum of American Art in 2012, a 120-foot reproduction of Kusama's painting Yellow Trees (1994) covered a condominium building under construction in "New York's Meatpacking District. That same year, Kusama conceived her floor installation Thousands of Eyes as a commission for the new "Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law, Brisbane.
In 1959, Kusama had her first solo exhibition in New York at the Brata Gallery, an artist's co-op. She showed a series of white net paintings which were enthusiastically reviewed by "Donald Judd (both Judd and "Frank Stella then acquired paintings from the show). Kusama has since exhibited work with, among others, "Claes Oldenburg, "Andy Warhol, and "Jasper Johns. Exhibiting alongside European artists including "Lucio Fontana, "Pol Bury, "Otto Piene, and "Gunther Uecker, in 1962 she was the only female artist to take part in the widely acclaimed Nul (Zero) international group exhibition at the "Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam.
Kusama's work is in the collections of museums throughout the world, including the "Museum of Modern Art, New York; "Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles; "Walker Art Center, Minneapolis; "Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix; "Tate Modern, London; "Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam; "Centre Pompidou, Paris; "Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Salt Lake City, UT; and the "National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo.
In 2017, a fifty-year "retrospective of Kusama's work opened at the "Hirshhorn Museum in "Washington DC. That same year, the Yayoi Kusama Museum was inaugurated in Tokyo. Other major retrospectives of her work have been held at the "Museum of Modern Art (1998), the "Whitney Museum (2012), and the "Tate Modern (2012). In 2015, the website "Artsy named Kusama one of its top 10 living artists of the year.
Kusama has received many awards, including the "Asahi Prize (2001); "Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (2003); the National Lifetime Achievement Award from the "Order of the Rising Sun (2006); and a "Lifetime Achievement Award from the Women's Caucus for Art. In October 2006, Kusama became the first Japanese woman to receive the "Praemium Imperiale, one of Japan's highest honors for internationally recognized artists. She also received the "Person of Cultural Merit (2009) and Ango awards (2014). In 2014, Kusama was ranked the most popular artist of the year after a record-breaking number of visitors flooded her Latin American tour, Yayoi Kusama: Infinite Obsession. Venues from "Buenos Aires to "Mexico City received over 8,500 visitors each day.
The octogenarian also gained media attention for partnering with the "Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden to make her 2017 Infinity Mirror rooms accessible to visitors with "disabilities or mobility issues; in an new initiative among art museums, the venue mapped out the six individual rooms and provided handicapped individuals visiting the exhibition access to a complete 360-degree "virtual reality "headset that allowed them to experience every aspect of the rooms, as if they were actually walking through them.
In the 1960s, Beatrice Perry's Gres Gallery played an important role in establishing Kusama's career in the United States. Ota Fine Arts, Kusama's longtime Tokyo dealer, has worked with the artist since the 1980s. Kusama left "Gagosian Gallery in late 2012; before moving to Gagosian, she had been with "Robert Miller Gallery, New York. Kusama has been represented by "Victoria Miro Gallery since the early 2000s, and joined "David Zwirner in 2013. The artist is currently represented by "David Zwirner, Ota Fine Arts, and "Victoria Miro Gallery.
Kusama's work has performed strongly at auction: top prices for her work are for paintings from the late 1950s and early 1960s. As of 2012, her work has the highest turnover of any living woman artist. In November 2008, "Christie's New York sold a 1959 white Infinity Net painting formerly owned by "Donald Judd, No. 2, for US$5.1 million, then a record for a living female artist. In comparison, the highest price for a sculpture from her New York years is £72,500 (US$147,687), fetched by the 1965 wool, pasta, paint and hanger assemblage Golden Macaroni Jacket at "Sotheby's London in October 2007. A 2006 acrylic on fiberglass-reinforced plastic pumpkin earned $264,000, the top price for one of her sculptures, also at Sotheby's in 2007 Her Flame of Life - Dedicated to Tu-Fu (Du-Fu) sold for US$960,000 at "Art Basel/Hong Kong in May 2013, the highest price paid at the show. Kusama became the most expensive living female artist at auction when White No. 28 (1960) from her signature Infinity Nets series sold for $7.1 million at a 2014 Christie's auction.
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