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In Zainichi Korean
"Hangul 재일한국어/재일조선어
"Hanja 在日韓國語/在日朝鮮語
"IPA /t͡ɕeiɾ hanɡuɡo/ or /t͡ɕeiɾ t͡ɕosono/
"Revised Romanization Jaeil Hangugeo/Jaeil Joseoneo
"McCune-Reischauer Chaeil Han'gugŏ/Chaeil Chosŏnŏ
In Standard Korean
"Hangul 재일어
"Hanja 在日語
"Revised Romanization Jaeireo
"McCune-Reischauer Chaeirŏ
In Japanese
"Kanji 在日朝鮮語/在日韓国語
"Rōmaji Zainichi Chōsengo/Zainichi Kankokugo

Zainichi Korean is Korean as spoken by "Zainichi Koreans ("ethnic Korean "citizens or residents of "Japan). The speech is based on the "southern dialects of "Korean, as the majority of first-generation immigrants came from the southern part of the peninsula, including "Gyeonggi-do, "Jeolla-do, and "Jeju-do. Due to isolation from other Korean speech-communities and the "influence of Japanese, Zainichi Korean language exhibits strong differences from the standard Korean of either North or South Korea.


Languages among Zainichi Koreans[edit]

The majority of Zainichi Koreans use Japanese in their everyday speech, even among themselves. The Korean language is used only in a limited number of social contexts: towards first-generation immigrants, as well as in "Chosŏn Hakkyo, ("Hangul조선학교; "Hanja朝鮮學校, or Chōsen Gakkō; 朝鮮学校, "Korean School"), pro-"Pyongyang ethnic schools supported by "Chongryon.

Since most Zainichi Koreans learn Korean as their second language, they tend to speak it with a heavy Japanese accent. This variety of speech is called Zainichi Korean language, a name which, even when used by Zainichi Koreans themselves, often carries a critical connotation.[1]



While Standard Korean distinguishes eight "vowels, Zainichi Korean distinguishes only five, as in Japanese.

Initial consonants[edit]

In "syllable-initial position, standard Korean distinguishes among plain, "aspirated, and "tense "consonants, such as /k/, /kʰ/, and /k͈/. Zainichi Korean, on the other hand, distinguishes only between "unvoiced and voiced "consonants (/k/ and /ɡ/), as in Japanese.

Standard Korean Zainichi Korean
Beginning of a word Elsewhere
Plain /k/ Unvoiced /k/ or voiced /ɡ/, depending on speakers
Aspirate /kʰ/ Unvoiced /k/ "Geminated unvoiced /kː/
Tense /k͈/

There are no "geminates after "nasal consonants. Thus 앉자, /ant͡ɕ͈a/ in Standard, becomes /ant͡ɕa/, not /ant͡ɕːa/.

As in the North Korean standard, initial /ɾ/ or /n/ never "change their values. 역사 /jəks͈a/ in "South Korea is 력사 /ɾjəks͈a/ in "North Korea, or /ɾjosːa/ among Zainichi Koreans.

Final consonants[edit]

Seven consonants occur in the "final position of Standard Korean "syllables, namely /p/, /t/, /k/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, and /ɾ/. In Zainichi Korean, again, those sounds are treated differently.

Standard Korean Zainichi Korean
"Plosives (/p/, /t/, and /k/) Followed by geminated consonants (i.e. /ɾjok/ followed by /sa/ becomes /ɾjosːa/)
"Nasals (/m/, /n/, and /ŋ/) /ɴ/ (as in "Japanese)
"Flap (/ɾ/) /ɾ/


Zainichi Korean grammar also shows influence from Japanese.

Some "particles are used differently from the Standard Korean. For instance, "to ride a car" is expressed as chareul tanda (차를 탄다) in standard Korean, which can be interpreted as "car-(direct object) ride". In Zainichi Korean, the same idea is expressed as cha-e tanda (차에 탄다; "car-into ride"), just like Japanese kuruma ni noru (車に乗る).

Standard Korean distinguishes hae itda (해 있다, referring to a continuous state) and hago itda (하고 있다, referring to a continuous action). For instance, "to be sitting" is anja itda (앉아 있다), not ango itda (앉고 있다), as the latter would mean "being in the middle of the action of sitting, but has not completed the action yet". Zainichi Korean, however, does not distinguish these two, as Japanese does not either; it uses hago itda form for both continuous state and continuous action.

Writing system[edit]

Zainichi Korean is not typically written; standard Korean is used as the "literary language. For example, a speaker who pronounces the word geureona (그러나; "however") as gurona (구로나), will still spell the word in the former form. In much the same way, Standard Korean speakers retain the "grapheme difference between ae and e , even though they may pronounce the two identically.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Io, a magazine published by "Choson Sinbo, had a report titled ここがヘンだよ「在日朝鮮語」 (Zainichi Korean language is strange in these ways), criticizing this variety of Korean, which can't be called "urimal (literally "our language") anymore". [1]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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