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Zaragoza
""Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar and the Puente de Piedra bridge on the Ebro River
""Flag of Zaragoza
Flag
""Coat of arms of Zaragoza
Coat of arms
""Zaragoza is located in Aragon
Zaragoza
Zaragoza
""Zaragoza is located in Spain
Zaragoza
Zaragoza
""Zaragoza is located in Europe
Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Location of Zaragoza within Aragon
Coordinates: 41°39′N 0°53′W / 41.650°N 0.883°W / 41.650; -0.883"Coordinates: 41°39′N 0°53′W / 41.650°N 0.883°W / 41.650; -0.883
"Country "Spain
"Autonomous community "Aragon
"Province "Zaragoza
"Comarca "Zaragoza
Districts Actur, Casco Antiguo, Centro, Delicias, Universidad, San José, Las Fuentes, La Almozara, Oliver-Valdefierro, Torrero-La Paz, Margen Izquierda, Barrios Rurales Norte, Barrios Rurales Oeste, Valdespartera, Arcosur
Government
 • Type "Mayor-council
 • Body Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza
 • "Mayor "Pedro Santisteve (Zaragoza en Común)
Area
 • Total 973.78 km2 (375.98 sq mi)
Elevation 243 m (797 ft)
Population (2016)
 • Total 661,108 [1]
"Demonym(s) zaragozano (m), zaragozana (f)
"Time zone CET (GMT +1)
 • Summer ("DST) CEST (GMT +2) ("UTC)
Postcode 50001 – 50020
"Area code(s) 976
"ISO 3166-2 ES-Z
Website www.zaragoza.es

Zaragoza ("/ˌzærəˈɡzə/, "/ˌsærəˈɡsə/ or "/ˌθærəˈɡθə/, Spanish: "[θaɾaˈɣoθa]), also called Saragossa ("/ˌsærəˈɡɒsə/)[2] in "English,[3] is the capital city of the "Zaragoza province and of the "autonomous community of "Aragon, "Spain. It lies by the "Ebro river and its tributaries, the "Huerva and the "Gállego, roughly in the center of both Aragon and the Ebro basin.

On 1 September 2010 the population of the city of Zaragoza was 701,090,[4] within its administrative limits on a land area of 1,062.64 square kilometres (410.29 square miles), ranking "fifth in Spain. It is the "32nd most populous municipality in the "European Union. The population of the "metropolitan area was estimated in 2006 at 783,763 inhabitants. The "municipality is home to more than 50 percent of the Aragonese population. The city lies at an elevation of 199 "metres (653 feet) "above sea level.

Zaragoza hosted "Expo 2008 in the summer of 2008, a "world's fair on water and sustainable development. It was also a candidate for the "European Capital of Culture in 2012.

The city is famous for its folklore, local gastronomy, and landmarks such as the "Basílica del Pilar, "La Seo Cathedral and the "Aljafería Palace. Together with La Seo and the Aljafería, several other buildings form part of the "Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon which is a "UNESCO "World Heritage Site. The "Fiestas del Pilar are among the most celebrated festivals in Spain.

Contents

Etymology[edit]

The city was called by the ancient Romans Caesaraugusta, from which the present name derives. The "Iberian town that predated the Roman city was called Salduie.[5]

History[edit]

Roman Caesaraugusta[edit]

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Roman theatre

The "Sedetani, a tribe of "ancient Iberians, populated a village called Salduie (Salduba in Roman sources). Later on, "Augustus founded a city called Caesaraugusta[6] at the same location to settle army veterans from the "Cantabrian wars. The foundation date of Caesaraugusta has not been set with exact precision, though it is known to lie between 25 BC and 12 BC. The city did not suffer any decline during the last centuries of the Roman empire and was captured peacefully by the "Goths in the fifth century AD.

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"Aljafería Palace, built in the 11th century.

Taifa of Zaragoza[edit]

From 1018 to 1118, Zaragoza was one of the "taifa kingdoms, independent Muslim states which emerged in the eleventh century following the destruction of the "Caliphate of Córdoba. During the first three decades of this period, 1018–1038, the city was ruled by the "Banu Tujibi. In 1038 they were replaced by the "Banu Hud, who had to deal with a complicated alliance with "El Cid of "Valencia and his Castilian masters against the "Almoravids, who managed to bring the Taifas Emirates under their control. After the death of El Cid his kingdom was overrun by the Almoravids, who, by 1100, had managed to cross the Ebro into "Barbastro, which brought Aragon into direct contact with them. The "Banu Hud stubbornly resisted the Almoravids and ruled until they were eventually defeated by them in May 1110.

Aragonese era[edit]

On 18 December 1118, the "Aragonese led by "Alfonso I conquered the city from the "Almoravids,[7] and made it the capital of the "Kingdom of Aragon.[8] After Alfonso's death without heirs in 1134, Zaragoza was swiftly occupied by "Alfonso VII of León and Castile. The city control was held by "García Ramírez, king of Navarra, until 1136 when it was given to "Ramiro II the Monk in the treaty signed at the betrothal of Ramiro's daughter Petronila and Alfonso's son Sancho. The wedding never happened, as Petronila ended up marrying "Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona.["citation needed] The marriage union was the origin of the "Crown of Aragón.

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Assault of the French army at Santa Engracia Monastery on 8 February 1809 during the "Peninsular War. Oil on canvas, 1827

13th century Zaragoza was the scene of two controversial martyrdoms related with the "Spanish Inquisition: those of "Saint Dominguito del Val, a choirboy in the basilica, and "Pedro de Arbués, head official of the inquisition. While the reality of the existence of Saint Dominguito del Val is questioned, his "murder" at the hands of "jealous Jews" was used as an excuse to murder or convert the Jewish population of Zaragoza.[9]

Zaragoza suffered two famous sieges during the "Peninsular War against the Napoleonic army: a "first from June to August 1808; and a "second from December 1808 to February 1809, surrendering only after some 50,000 defenders had died.[10]

Modern history[edit]

Despite a decline in the outlying rural economy, Zaragoza has continued to grow. The "General Military Academy, a higher training center of the "Spanish Army, was re-established on 27 September 1940, by Minister of the Army "José Enrique Varela Iglesias. During the second half of the 20th century, Zaragoza's population boomed as a number of factories opened in the region.[11]

In 1979, the "Hotel Corona de Aragón fire killed at least 80. The armed "Basque nationalist and separatist organization "ETA from northern Spain has been blamed, but officially the fire is still regarded as accidental.[12] ETA carried out the "1987 Zaragoza Barracks bombing in the city which killed eleven people, including a number of children, leading to 250,000 people taking part in demonstrations in the city.["citation needed]

Demographics[edit]

Population, in thousands, can be seen here:

Historical population of Zaragoza
Year 1991 1996 2001 2004 2005 2006 2008
Population 594 394 601 674 610 976 638 799 647 373 660 895 682 283

Immigration[edit]

Foreign ethnicities in Zaragoza in 2013[13]
Position Ethnicity Inhabitants
 "Romania 32 958
 "Morocco 8 158
 "Ecuador 7 756
 "China 5 762
 "Colombia 5 346
 "Nicaragua 4 703
 "Bulgaria 3 701
 "Algeria 3 621
 "Senegal 3 004
10ª  "Dominican Republic 1 982
11ª  "Ghana 1 973
12ª  "Gambia 1 878

In 2013 there were 107 864 foreign citizens in Zaragoza,[14] which represents 15% of the total population. From 2004 to 2013 immigration rose from 43 355 to 107 864 inhabitants. The district with the biggest number of immigrants was the district of Delicias, with 25 428 immigrant inhabitants, which represents 23% of the population of the district. The Old Town of Zaragoza registered 11 881 immigrants, which represents 25% of the population of the district.["citation needed]

Climate[edit]

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Zaragoza climate chart (Airport)

Zaragoza has a mild "semi-arid climate ("Köppen climate classification BSn),[15] as it lies in a wide "basin entirely surrounded by "mountains which block off moist air from the Atlantic and Mediterranean. The average annual "precipitation is a scanty 322 millimetres (12.7 in) with abundant sunny days, and the most rainy seasons are spring (April–May) and autumn (September–November), with a relative "drought in summer (July–August) and winter (December–March).

"Temperatures are hot in summer reaching up to 44.5 °C (112.1 °F), and in winter are cool, either because of the "fog (about twenty days from November to January["citation needed]) or a cold and dry "wind blowing from the northwest, the "Cierzo (related to other northerly winds such as the "Mistral in the SE of "France) on clear days. "Frost is common and there is sporadic "snowfall. The Cierzo can cause a 'wind chill factor' as low as −10 °C (14 °F) during cold spells.

Climate data for Zaragoza Airport, altitude 263m (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.6
(69.1)
22.5
(72.5)
28.3
(82.9)
32.4
(90.3)
36.5
(97.7)
41.0
(105.8)
44.5
(112.1)
42.8
(109)
39.2
(102.6)
32.0
(89.6)
28.4
(83.1)
22.0
(71.6)
44.5
(112.1)
Average high °C (°F) 10.5
(50.9)
13.1
(55.6)
17.3
(63.1)
19.6
(67.3)
24.1
(75.4)
29.3
(84.7)
32.4
(90.3)
31.7
(89.1)
27.1
(80.8)
21.4
(70.5)
14.8
(58.6)
10.8
(51.4)
21.0
(69.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.6
(43.9)
8.2
(46.8)
11.6
(52.9)
13.8
(56.8)
18.0
(64.4)
22.6
(72.7)
25.3
(77.5)
25.0
(77)
21.2
(70.2)
16.2
(61.2)
10.6
(51.1)
7.0
(44.6)
15.5
(59.9)
Average low °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
3.3
(37.9)
5.8
(42.4)
7.9
(46.2)
11.8
(53.2)
15.8
(60.4)
18.3
(64.9)
18.3
(64.9)
15.2
(59.4)
11.0
(51.8)
6.3
(43.3)
3.2
(37.8)
10.0
(50)
Record low °C (°F) −15.2
(4.6)
−11.4
(11.5)
−6.3
(20.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
0.5
(32.9)
1.6
(34.9)
8.0
(46.4)
8.4
(47.1)
4.8
(40.6)
0.6
(33.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
−9.5
(14.9)
−15.2
(4.6)
Average "precipitation mm (inches) 21.0
(0.827)
21.5
(0.846)
19.1
(0.752)
39.3
(1.547)
43.7
(1.72)
26.4
(1.039)
17.3
(0.681)
16.6
(0.654)
29.5
(1.161)
36.4
(1.433)
29.8
(1.173)
21.4
(0.843)
322.0
(12.677)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 4.0 3.9 3.7 5.7 6.4 4.0 2.6 2.3 3.2 5.4 5.1 4.8 51.1
Average snowy days 0.7 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 1.8
Average "relative humidity (%) 75 68 60 58 56 52 49 53 59 69 74 77 62
Mean monthly "sunshine hours 131 165 217 226 275 307 348 315 243 195 148 124 2,694
Source: "Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[16]

Economy[edit]

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Pavilion of Aragon in the Expo 2008
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"Torre del Agua at the "Expo 2008 site

In addition to the advantageous geographic situation, an "Opel factory was opened in 1982 in "Figueruelas, a small village nearby. The progressive decline of the agrarian economy turned Opel into one of the main pillars of the regional economy["citation needed], along with "Balay, which manufactures household appliances; CAF (Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles S.A.), which builds railway engines for both the national and international markets; SAICA and Torraspapel in the stationery sector; and various other local companies, such as "Pikolin, "Lacasa, and "Imaginarium SA.["citation needed]

The city's economy benefited from projects like the "Expo 2008, the official World's Fair, whose theme was water and "sustainable development, held between 14 June and 14 September 2008, Plataforma Logística de Zaragoza (PLAZA), and the Parque Tecnológico de Reciclado (PTR). Furthermore, since December 2003, it has been a city through which the "AVE high-speed rail travels. Currently, "Zaragoza Airport is a major cargo hub in the "Iberian Peninsula, behind only Madrid, Barcelona, and Lisbon.

Zaragoza is home to a "Spanish Air Force base, which was shared with the "U.S. Air Force until 1994.[17] In English, the base was known as Zaragoza Air Base. The Spanish Air Force maintained an "McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet wing at the base. No American flying wings (with the exception of a few KC-135's) were permanently based there, but it served as a training base for American fighter squadrons across Europe. It is also the main headquarters for the Spanish Land Army, hosting the Academia General Militar, a number of brigades at San Gregorio, and other garrisons.["citation needed]

Culture[edit]

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View of Zaragoza (1647) by "Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo.

Christianity took root in Zaragoza at an early date.[18] According to legend, "St. Mary appeared miraculously to "Saint James the Great in Zaragoza in the first century, standing on a pillar. This apparition is commemorated by a famous Catholic "basilica called "Nuestra Señora del Pilar ("Our Lady of the Pillar").[19]

Festivals[edit]

The annual "Fiestas del Pilar last for nine days, with its main day on 12 October. Since this date coincided in 1492 with the first sighting by Christopher Columbus of the Americas, that day is also celebrated as El Día de la Hispanidad ("Columbus Day) by Spanish-speaking people worldwide.["citation needed]

There are many activities during the festival, from the massively attended Pregon (opening speech) to the final fireworks display over the Ebro; they also include marching bands, dances such as "Jota aragonesa" (the most popular dance of folklore music genre), a procession of "gigantes y cabezudos, concerts, exhibitions, vaquillas, bullfights, fairground amusements, and fireworks. Some of the most important events are the Ofrenda de Flores, or Flower Offering to St. Mary of the Pillar, on 12 October, when an enormous surface resembling a cloak for St. Mary is covered with flowers, and the Ofrenda de Frutos on 13 October, when all the "autonomous communities of Spain offer their typical regional dishes to St. Mary and donate them to soup kitchens.

Education[edit]

The "University of Zaragoza is based in the city. As one of the oldest universities in Spain and a major "research and development centre, this "public university awards all the highest academic degrees in dozens of fields. Zaragoza is also home to the MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program, a unique partnership between MIT, the Government of Aragon and the University of Zaragoza.

There is also a private university, Universidad San Jorge, which is located in "Villanueva de Gállego.

There is a French international primary and secondary school, "Lycée Français Molière de Saragosse.

Transportation[edit]

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Zaragoza's Third Millennium Bridge spans the "Ebro and is the world's largest concrete "tied-arch bridge, with six traffic lanes, two bike lanes, and two glass-enclosed walkways for pedestrians.[20]

Roads[edit]

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"Zaragoza tram in Paseo de la Independencia

The city is connected by "motorway with the main cities in central and northern Spain, including "Madrid, "Barcelona, "Valencia, and "Bilbao, all of which are located about 300 kilometres (200 miles) from Zaragoza.

Buses[edit]

The city has a network of buses which is controlled by the Urban Buses of Zaragoza (AUZSA). The network consists of 31 regular lines (two of them circle lines), two scheduled routes, six shuttle buses (one free), and seven night buses operating on Fridays, Saturdays and other festivities.[21] Zaragoza also has an interurban bus network operated by Transport Consortium Zaragoza Area (CTAZ) that operates 17 regular lines.[22]

Bicycle[edit]

Zaragoza's bicycle lanes facilitate non-motorized travel and help cyclists to avoid running into pedestrians and motor vehicles. The city council also has a public bicycle-hire scheme; the 'bizi zaragoza' - which consists in the payment of an annual charge.

Tram[edit]

The first line of the "Zaragoza tram (Valdespartera-Parque Goya) is fully operational.

Railway[edit]

Zaragoza is a part of the "Spanish high-speed railway operated by "RENFE, "AVE, which connects "Madrid and "Barcelona via "high-speed rail. Madrid can be reached in 75 minutes, and Barcelona in approximately 90 minutes. The central station is "Intermodal Zaragoza Delicias Station", which serves both railway lines and coaches. In addition to long-distance railway lines and the high-speed trains, Zaragoza has a network of "commuter trains operated by RENFE called "cercanías.

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Zaragoza Airport

Airport[edit]

The "Zaragoza Airport is located in the Garrapinillos neighborhood, 10 kilometers from the city center.

It is a major commercial airport, its freight traffic surpassing that of "Barcelona El Prat in 2012,[23] and serves as the home of the "Spanish Air Force's 15th Group. It was also used by "NASA as a contingency "landing site for the "Space Shuttle in the case of a "Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL).

Public Transportation Statistics[edit]

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Zaragoza, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 48 min. 9% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 12% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.2 km, while 5% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. [24]

Sports[edit]

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The "1995 Cup Winners' Cup in display in the club's trophy cabinet.
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"Nani Roma Baja España 2009
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Torre del Agua in the Luis Buñuel Metropolitan Water Park, at the Expo 2008 site

Football[edit]

Zaragoza's main football team, "Real Zaragoza, plays in the "Segunda División. Founded on 18 March 1932, its home games are played at "La Romareda, which seats 34,596 spectators. The club has spent the majority of its history in "La Liga. One of the most remarkable events in the team's recent history is the winning of the former "UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1995. The team has also won the Spanish National Cup ""Copa del Rey" six times: 1965, 1966, 1986, 1994, 2001 and 2004 and an "Inter-Cities Fairs Cup (1964). A government survey in 2007 found that 2.7% of the Spanish population support the club, making them the seventh-most supported in the country.

Zaragoza's second football team is "CD Ebro. Founded in 1942, it plays in "Segunda División B – Group 2, holding home games at Campo Municipal de Fútbol La Almozara, which has a capacity of 1,000 seats.

"Zaragoza CFF is a Spanish women's football team from Zaragoza playing in Primera División Femenina.

Basketball[edit]

The main basketball team, "Basket Zaragoza, known as Tecnyconta Zaragoza for sponsorship reasons, plays in the "Liga ACB. They play their home games at the "Pabellón Principe Felipe with a capacity of 10,744.

"Stadium Casablanca, a.k.a. Mann Filter for sponsorship reasons, is the Spanish women's basketball club from Zaragoza that plays in the "Primera Division.

Futsal[edit]

The main futsal team, is "Dlink Zaragoza, plays in the LNFS Primera División. They play at the Pabellón Siglo XXI with a capacity of 2,600.

Other Sports[edit]

Zaragoza's handball team, "BM Aragón, plays in the "Liga ASOBAL.

The "Spanish Baja or "Baja Aragon is a Rally raid event held in the region of Aragon in northern Spain. This event was launched in 1983, and chose the desert of Monegros because of the scenery and availability of service infrastructure in Zaragoza.

Zaragoza was strongly associated with "Jaca in its failed bid for the "2014 Winter Olympics.

There are three Rugby Union teams playing in the regional league:

  1. Ibero Club de Rugby Zaragoza
  2. "Fénix Club de Rugby
  3. Club Deportivo Universitario de Rugby

A permanent feature built for Expo 2008 is the pump-powered artificial whitewater course "El Canal de Aguas Bravas."

Main sights[edit]

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The Roman walls
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Santa María Magdalena church

Near the "basilica on the banks of the Ebro are located the city hall, the Lonja (old currency exchange), La Seo (literally "the "See" in the Aragonese language) or "Cathedral of San Salvador, a church built over the main mosque (partially preserved in the 11th-century north wall of the Parroquieta), with Romanesque apses from the 12th century; inside, the imposing hallenkirche from the 15th to 16th centuries, the Baroque tower, and finally, with its famous Museum of Tapestries near the Roman ruins of forum and port "city wall.

Some distance from the centre of the old city is the "Moorish castle (or palace) "Aljafería, the most important Moorish buildings in northern Spain and the setting for "Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Il trovatore (The Troubadour). The Aragonese parliament currently sits in the building.

The churches of "San Pablo, "Santa María Magdalena and "San Gil Abad were built in the 14th century, but the towers may be old minarets dating from the 11th century; "San Miguel (14th century); Santiago (San Ildefonso) and the Fecetas monastery are Baroque with Mudéjar ceilings of the 17th century. All the churches are Mudéjar monuments that comprise a "World Heritage Site.[25]

Other important sights are the stately houses and palaces in the city, mainly of the 16th century: palaces of the count of Morata or Luna (Audiencia), Deán, Torrero (colegio de Arquitectos), Don Lope or Real Maestranza, count of Sástago, count of Argillo (today the Pablo Gargallo museum), archbishop, etc.

On 14 June 2008, the site of Expo 2008 opened its doors to the public. The exhibition ran until 14 September.

Other sights[edit]

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Labordeta Grand Park

Museums[26] in Zaragoza are:

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Zaragoza is "twinned with:[28]

Zaragoza has special bilateral collaboration agreements with:[34]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Total Population - Zaragoza". National Statistics Institute. Retrieved 29 August 2017. 
  2. ^ "Saragossa". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
  3. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica Zaragoza (conventional Saragossa)
  4. ^ "Zaragoza supera los 700.000 habitantes". Heraldo.es. 2006-01-01. Retrieved 2011-04-10. 
  5. ^ Alex Mullen; Patrick James (6 September 2012). Multilingualism in the Graeco-Roman Worlds. Cambridge University Press. p. 104. "ISBN "978-1-139-56062-7. 
  6. ^ Sivan, H., S. Keay, R. Mathisen, DARMC, R. Talbert, S. Gillies, J. Åhlfeldt, J. Becker, T. Elliott. "Places: 246344 (Col. Caesaraugusta)". Pleiades. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  7. ^ "Rogers, Clifford J., ed. (2010). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 466. "ISBN "978-0-19-533403-6. 
  8. ^ "Aragon | region, Spain". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  9. ^ "Jewish Community of Zaragoza". Aragonguide.com. Retrieved 2011-04-10. 
  10. ^ "Napoleon's Total War". Historynet.com. 7 March 2007. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  11. ^ Marina Van Geenhuizen; Peter Nijkamp (1 April 2012). Creative Knowledge Cities: Myths, Visions and Realities. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 58. "ISBN "978-0-85793-285-3. 
  12. ^ "El incendio del Corona de Aragón, fue provocado, según "El Alcázar"". El País (in Spanish). PRISA. 20 November 1979. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016. . 
  13. ^ http://www.heraldo.es/noticias/aragon/zaragoza_provincia/zaragoza/2013/03/05/zaragoza_sigue_ganando_poblacion_perdiendo_extranjeros_224987_301.html
  14. ^ http://www.heraldo.es/noticias/aragon/zaragoza_provincia/zaragoza/2013/03/05/zaragoza_sigue_ganando_poblacion_perdiendo_extranjeros_224987_301.html
  15. ^ Summary for Zaragoza, Spain
  16. ^ "Standard Climate Values. Zaragoza Aeropuerto". 
  17. ^ John Pike. "Zaragoza Air Base". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  18. ^ Albert Frederick Calvert (1908). Valladolid, Oviedo, Segovia, Zamora, Avil, & Zaragoza: An Historical & Descriptive Account. Lane. p. 136. 
  19. ^ J. Gordon Melton (15 January 2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History. ABC-CLIO. p. 734. "ISBN "978-1-61069-026-3. 
  20. ^ "Puente del Tercer Milenio – Third Millennium Bridge". Discover Monuments, Zaragoza. Sociedad Estatal para la Gestión de la Innovación y las Tecnologías Turísticas, S.A. (SEGITTUR). Retrieved 27 December 2012. 
  21. ^ AUZSA web page
  22. ^ CTAZ web page
  23. ^ J. L. Gaona (13 September 2012). "El aeropuerto de Zaragoza supera al de Barcelona en tráfico de mercancías". Heraldo. Zaragoza: Heraldo de Aragon Editora Digital. Tráfico aéreo. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2014. 
  24. ^ "Zaragoza Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved 19 June 2017.  ""CC-BY icon.svg Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  25. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Mudejar Architecture of Aragon". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2017-08-24. 
  26. ^ Museums in Zaragoza
  27. ^ Museum of Fine Arts Zaragoza
  28. ^ "Zaragoza Internacional: Hermanamientos con Zaragoza" (official website) (in Spanish). Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza. Retrieved 2015-01-04. 
  29. ^ "Official portal of City of Skopje – Skopje Sister Cities". "© 2006-2009 City of Skopje. Retrieved 2009-07-14.  External link in |publisher= ("help)
  30. ^ "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). © 2009 Câmara Municipal de Coimbra – Praça 8 de Maio – 3000-300 Coimbra. Retrieved 2009-06-25.  External link in |publisher= ("help)
  31. ^ "Bethlehem Municipality". www.bethlehem-city.org. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  32. ^ "Twinning with Palestine". "© 1998-2008 The Britain – Palestine Twinning Network. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  33. ^ The City of Bethlehem has signed a twinning agreements with the following cities Archived 28 December 2007 at the "Wayback Machine. Bethlehem Municipality.
  34. ^ "Zaragoza Internacional: Firma de Protocolos de Colaboración" (official website) (in Spanish). Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza. Retrieved 2015-01-04. 
  35. ^ "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  36. ^ Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.

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